TutorMe's logic model outlines the inputs, activities, and outcomes of our evidence-based tutoring practices. The model is based on a literature review, which found that differentiated instructional supports and one-to-one tutoring sessions can lead to positive outcomes, including increased readiness to learn, teacher satisfaction, and improvements in reading and math achievement for at-risk K-12 students.
TutorMe is committed to delivering tutoring experiences that help all students grow academically, while also supporting teachers’ success and well-being. The tutoring that occurs on our platform is rooted in evidence-based practices that are proven to support a number of positive outcomes.
To show exactly how our tutoring sessions do this, the GoGuardian Education Team has developed a detailed logic model. The logic model was designed to satisfy Level IV requirements (Demonstrates a Rationale) according to the Every Student Succeeds Act (ESSA).
What is a logic model?
A logic model is a conceptual framework that represents the expected outcomes of a program or product. It identifies key components of the program or product experience and shows how they logically impact the desired outcomes. The TutorMe logic model has three core components: inputs, activities, and outcomes.
Driven by research
The structure of the TutorMe logic model was informed by a robust literature review process in instructional techniques, tutoring practices, and effective academic intervention strategies. GoGuardian’s Education Team conducted a keyword search in EBSCO’s library database and utilized a snowball-method literature search to identify additional relevant papers. Using a preset criteria, studies were selected to be included in the review.
Literature review findings on effective tutoring practices
The literature review findings on effective tutoring practices indicate that differentiated instructional supports and out-of-school-time resources, such as 1:1 tutoring services, can lead to positive outcomes, including increased readiness to learn and teacher satisfaction. Access to out-of-school (OST) 1:1 tutoring resources has also been shown to significantly improve reading and mathematics achievement gains for historically low-achieving or at-risk K-12 students.
High-quality instructional techniques, including scaffolded lesson planning, goal-setting, growth-mindset-oriented feedback, and higher-order thinking practices, have been identified as effective ways to promote equitable learning outcomes and student learning and achievement. Metacognitive strategies integrated within active, student-centered lessons can also improve self-efficacy, conceptual understanding, critical-thinking skills, and success in transfer-of-knowledge tasks.
Solution-oriented approach to current education challenges
Following the COVID-19 pandemic, the need for solutions that address learning loss, ameliorate staff shortages, and enable differentiated learning strategies has only grown more urgent. TutorMe has committed itself to building out an implementation system and standardized tutoring session experience that is guided by evidence-based practices in order to effectively support teacher and student outcomes.
TutorMe’s logic model details how the implementation protocols and instructional strategies employed in a TutorMe tutoring session have been designed to systematically incorporate these key principles.
Inputs: Optimal tutoring practices
Based on extensive educational research, the inputs column highlights the core components of a tutoring session optimized to support and supplement student learning.
Provide differentiated instructional supports for all students
Tutors support teacher-led instruction by operating alongside traditional classroom learning, filling in learning gaps or challenging students to push further in their studies.
Deliver high-quality instructional support
Our tutors deliver engaging, rigorous support in a one-to-one session, with the student always at the center of the learning experience.
Give students tools to learn beyond the session
Tutors set students up for future success by building their capacity, desire, and ability to learn.
Activities: How TutorMe implements those core components
The activities column details the characteristics of a typical TutorMe session that enables the delivery of optimal tutoring practices for all students.
On-demand support for students and teachers
Schools and districts can use TutorMe as a tool in their intervention structure. When a school partners with TutorMe, students can access a qualified tutor at any time, in any place, and for any subject. Students can use their tutoring sessions as a way to get extra assistance with homework, to give themselves an extra challenge in a subject they are interested in, or as a personalized support plan that will help them achieve academically.
Teachers can use TutorMe in the classroom, as a way to provide students with direct support. Teachers can also leverage TutorMe's Writing Lab to increase individual feedback on writing and allow teachers to spend more time on new content and less time reviewing drafts.
Scaffolded sessions and learning goals
The one-on-one support that students receive during tutoring sessions is focused on assessment of the student's prior knowledge and then building on that knowledge using achievable learning goals.
The collaborative digital tools on TutorMe allow tutors to use evidence-based learning strategies, like the Modeling-Scaffolding-Fading approach.
Growth-mindset oriented experiences
Our tutors give positive, personalized, and process-oriented feedback as a way to encourage students to keep working. Tutors can also create a clear, goal-oriented session plan to help students reach their learning goals.
Student-centered session designs
Students are at the center of everything we do. For instance, our tutors continually prompt students to demonstrate what they already know. They encourage students to evaluate their own reasoning and reflect on their own learning process. The tutors give guidance and feedback that is focused on what is best for the individual student, not prescribing what the student should be doing or trying to control the way the student learns.
Emphasis on higher-order thinking skills
Tutors encourage students to utilize higher-order thinking strategies by using questioning techniques, application tasks, and active discussion throughout sessions. Higher-order thinking includes critical thinking, problem solving, and decision-making.
Outcomes: The results of implementing ideal tutoring practices
The outcomes column summarizes the likely results of a TutorMe session based upon the consistent application of the activities proven by previous research to drive student outputs.
Academic achievement and engagement
When tasks are assigned to students at an appropriate level of cognitive difficulty, they are known to have positive effects on student engagement and motivation. In fact, it has been shown that higher rates of timely and effective feedback are one of the most effective ways to improve learning and achievement. Interactive lesson experiences and learning experiences that are focused on higher-order thinking skills are also linked to increased student engagement and achievement for both low and high-performing students.
Other types of learning that are shown to increase academic achievement and engagement include student-centered lessons involving elements of discussion, interaction, and student response technology.
When it comes to tutoring deep learners, it has been shown that reflection prompts help aid the learning process. For learners with more shallow knowledge, tutors are more successful using a scaffolding approach.
Research shows that significant positive achievement gains in reading and mathematics were made when low-achieving or at-risk K-12 students had access to out-of-school-time tutoring resources.
Teacher satisfaction and retention
According to teacher self-reports, out-of-school-time resources, such as access to tutoring services, can result in a greater percentage of completed student work and a greater amount of readiness to learn when students are in the classroom. Teacher self-reports are found to be predictive of how satisfied they are with their jobs and how likely they are to remain in their job.
Elementary and middle school students with a low SES background who had access to tutoring resources and tutoring feedback demonstrated significantly more achievement.
Focused academic support, such as structured intensive tutoring, has been shown to improve academic outcomes for at-risk students, most of whom are from low-income and minority families.
Metacognitive techniques and confidence
When tutors use techniques like reflection, goal-setting, and self-explanation, research shows that students have an improved ability to self-monitor their own learning. They can also engage in deep conceptual understanding, think critically, and succeed in transfer-of-knowledge tasks.
When process-oriented feedback techniques are used by tutors, they are supporting persistence in learning and challenge-seeking behaviors.
The more timely and effective feedback a student gets, the more self-efficacy and self-reported feelings of competence students express.
What conclusions do we come to based on our logic model?
We created our detailed logic model based on previous, high-quality research, and established our logic based that satisfies the Every Student Succeeds Act (ESSA) evidence requirements for Level IV (Demonstrates a Rationale).
When schools implement TutorMe, they can expect an increase in teacher satisfaction and retention, improved equitable learning outcomes, improved academic achievement and engagement outcomes, and improved metacognitive ability and academic confidence.
TutorMe is planning on continuing building evidence of our effectiveness by exploring study designs to meet more of the ESSA Tiers or Evidence.