How is the spread of English as a second language affecting native cultures?
Until recent years the spread of English as a second language severely damaged native cultures. Historically the language has been taught as a form of assimilation to western culture and ideals. This is because language inherently represents the values of the culture it was born into, so unless it is adapted it will always emphasis foreign ideals. In recent years this problem is being recognized and addressed so that English can be taught as an augment to culture and not a inhibitor.
In what ways has the internet affected international relations?
Prior to the creation of the internet international relations was for the most part reserved for governments. This obviously inhibited cross cultural exchange, business ties, and information flows resulting in a less connected and less informed world population. After the creation of the internet it allowed people to not only connect with those in other areas of the world, but also learn from them. This increased interconnectedness has had many more effects but it stared with access to internet.
What effects did the printing press have on the emergence of nationalism in Europe?
The printing press was the first form of media, and it was the first medium by which consistent ideas could be spread to a wide range of people. This includes ingrained ideas such as nationalism. Prior to the creation of the printing press people only considered their immediate surroundings as they were unaware how their lives might be intertwined with others. Once the printing press was being used regularly it was possible to circulate information or propaganda materials informing the masses that they were indeed a small part of a bigger whole. Therefore, the notion of nationalism along with may other shared principals were all made possible by the printing press.