What is the best way to write for college?
Writing is as much of an art as it is a science, writing for college or university is difficult but there are many ways to approach it. This is one way that will help you keep most organized, ahead of deadlines, and stress free done at least 2 days before the deadline to give you assurance you will have extra time. First: ask the professor for the prompt as early as possible – often times it is in the syllabus, if not, the paper is listed in the syllabus. It is okay to ask on the first day of class, or during office hours early on to begin to gather your ideas. If the professor will not give the prompt so early, just focus on gathering information from class to later use in the paper. Second: do some preliminary research on a topic related to your prompt you are interested in. Use an academic library for physical books, see what is written out there, and use any online database like EBSCO or other academic search engines. This will help you narrow down your interests, see how much is out there, and how to build your paper based on available research. – take note of all the research material yielded as useful for you Third: when you begin to think about writing, start with an outline, make it as detailed or vague as you need to write. Some writers like to stay on a rigid outline, some like to make larger points to build and flex as they need. It is not a bad idea to run this outline by a professor before you begin writing. Begin your in depth research, spend time in the library looking for books, talking to an academic librarian, and researching through academic scholarly articles. Cite these as you go and add the points into your outline. It often helps to copy, print, and annotate these so you can easily find these topics later. Fourth: be sure you know what style you need to cite your paper, APA, MLA, AMA etc. go to the OWL Purdue website to be sure you are citing everything on point (anything miscited can be seen as plagiarism) Fifth: write your first draft using research and continue to research – this draft will likely be short, and missing many parts – but write as much as you can – then print, read and spill some red ink adding paragraphs by hand, fixing grammar, and moving things around. Six: continue to type, print, hand edit, retype, and add research as you need – often times this takes at least 5 drafts before you are happy with something. Make notes on areas that are hard or you are having issues smoothing into your paper and go to your professors office to gain some feedback on a specific area. Seven: start to type your “final” draft and before being done with your project, reread and hand edit one more time to be sure everything flows and makes sense. Finally: turn it in – you have done a great job working on it diligently early on so you are never overwhelmed with the amount of work. Many times in college final papers, projects, exams, and presentations happen all at the same time, the earlier you can get one thing done, the better in order to be less stressed at the end. – remember at any point you feel stuck go to your professors office and present what you have in order to gain some guidance.
What is the best way to prepare for midterms and finals?
Preparing for midterms and finals takes some planning in order to gather all the material you need to prepare for midterms and finals. First, it is important to know there is no magic way to read, or write to prepare you the night before or even the week before for a midterm or final. The best way to prepare for these exams are to be preparing along the way. While in class, take notes, make flash cards, write your own study guides, read and annotate, read and take notes, and build your own syllabus of information. Secondly, take special notes on specific material that came hard to you, or that you received a low score on. This will remind you when you are ready to review what you need to focus on first and foremost Begin this process at least a month before your scheduled exam. Materials to gather for midterms and finals assuming you have been working little by little all semester are. - Notes from the book and other class material your read - Any self-study guides, given study guides, or material given for past tests and quizzes - Try to receive copies of your past tests, quizzes, papers, and assignments to review - Collect all of your class notes from the term - Find all class lectures, PowerPoints, readings, and other information given in the class. To begin – sort out the material that came easy for you, things you remember, things that came hard, and things you cannot remember. This will help you sort through what you need to study first. Begin by reviewing the easier stuff – to help you ease into this. As you progress you should make your way through the other four piles focusing most of your energy on things you cannot remember, never learned, or things that came hard for you. This will give you the time to soak up what you did not soak up first. After reviewing – re write your notes, flashcards, reread via skimming, and write down material you still do not understand. It is important to keep a written record of everything so you are able to revisit when you need to review. Be sure to visit your professor or teacher and ask about the things you wrote down, be organized know what you want to ask, take note, and be okay with having an open discussion about it. The night before the exam be sure to get a full 8 hours of sleep, a healthy breakfast meal, and attend your exam. Studies show severe anxiety long before the exam AND no anxiety in students fared worse than students who had mild to moderate anxiety at the beginning of the exam. It is normal and healthy to be nervous walking to your exam.
What are the four types of attachments in the attachment theory - and how did they come to be?
Attachment theory was a theory developed by John Bowlby and Mary Ainsworth in research done with infants and children to understand how and why they interact with their caregivers and how that impacts the rest of their lives. The catalyst for understanding these theories came from historical thought experiments like Freud and understanding mother as a positive figure, behaviorism, and Harry Harlow’s monkey experiment. Bowlby theorized that attachment was a dyadic relationship meaning how the mother acts and reacts to her baby and how the baby acts and reacts to it’s mother. He broke attachment down into three stages, indiscriminate social responsiveness, discriminate social responsiveness, and focused attachment. During indiscriminate social responsiveness (0-2 months of age) the infant is more concerned with getting their needs met and will equally act and react to all caregivers equally (although current research proves Bowlby wrong on this). Discriminate social responsiveness (2-7 months) the baby has a special relationship and prefers one caregiver over most. Finally, Focused attachment (8-24 months) is when we see stranger and separation anxiety where the infant uses the main caregiver as a secure base and everything and everyone else can elicit fear and anxiety in the infant. Mary Ainsworth experiment was called the Strange Situation Procedure – this was a procedure aimed to understand how infants respond to their caregiver, stranger and a caregiver, a stranger without the caregiver, and the reunification between caregiver and infant. Through her experiment she broke down attachment into four categories. Secure (B) this makes up about 62-68% of babies in the US: this is when the infant is distressed when caregiver leaves, but is easily soothed and loves meeting their caregiver again. Insecure Resistant or Anxious (C) makes up about 9& of the population: these infants are clingy and engaged, however, do not explore when the mom leaves. High distressed hard to sooth when mom is gone and hard reunification with mixed emotions towards the mother upon return. Insecure avoidant (A) Makes up about 15% this is when the infant to begin was not engaged, not distressed when the caregiver left – Mary Ainsworth theorized that this is because the infant thinks it is unsafe to feel distressed. Often the baby is distressed but does not show it. They show virtually no emotion during the absence of the mother and during reunification. Disorganized (D) makes 5-15% : this is an attachment seen mostly in children who experience extremely abnormal living situations such as abuse, maltreatment, and neglect. We see when a caregiver leaves a set of rocking, hair pulling, hair banging and other highly unusual behaviors. Upon reunification of mother the infant often froze, was fearful when looking at mother, and was unsure how to react. It is important to note all attachments are considered normal (only secure is ideal) except disorganized. Disorganized is severely abnormal and indicates a serious problem. These four attachments and explanations are widely accepted today in the psychology community and are often used to understand children and adults as they learn to relate to others in their lives. Attachments often set the foundation for how people will relate to others in intimate settings and when they are afraid - however, many believe that attachment does not have to drive an individuals life.