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Tutor profile: David W.

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David W.
Professor of Pharmacology and Medicinal Chemistry for 10 yrs
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Questions

Subject: Organic Chemistry

TutorMe
Question:

What is the approximate ionization state of a molecule containing a carboxylic acid (pKa = 3) in a solution with a pH of 5?

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David W.
Answer:

We know the carboxylic acid is acidic, therefore, if it is in a solution with a pH that is higher (i.e. more basic) than its own pKa, then it will be deprotonated and ionized. The next step is to approximate the percent ionization. The Rule of 9 states that if the difference between the ph and pKa is 1 unit, the ionization is 91%...and if the difference between the ph and pKa is 2 units, the ionization is 99%. Since our difference is 2 units (pKa=3 and pH=5...5-3=2), the carboxylic acid is 99% ionized.

Subject: Health and Medicine

TutorMe
Question:

The ACE inhibitor drug class is a common class used to treat hypertension. Explain how the ACE inhibitor class lowers blood pressure.

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David W.
Answer:

Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors are powerful anti-hypertensives. ACE is the enzyme that is used to convert angiotensin I to angiotensin II and angiotensin II is a powerful vasoconstrictor. If you can inhibit the activity of ACE, which is what the ACE inhibitor drug class does, less angiotensin I will be converted to angiotensin II, therefore you will produce less of a natural vasoconstrictor. By producing less of a vasoconstrictor, the physiological response is to experience vasodilation, thereby lowering blood pressure.

Subject: Biomedical Science

TutorMe
Question:

The ACE inhibitor drug class is a common class used to treat hypertension. Explain how the ACE inhibitor class lowers blood pressure.

Inactive
David W.
Answer:

Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors are powerful anti-hypertensives. ACE is the enzyme that is used to convert angiotensin I to angiotensin II and angiotensin II is a powerful vasoconstrictor. If you can inhibit the activity of ACE, which is what the ACE inhibitor drug class does, less angiotensin I will be converted to angiotensin II, therefore you will produce less of a natural vasoconstrictor. By producing less of a vasoconstrictor, the physiological response is to experience vasodilation, thereby lowering blood pressure.

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