What is the difference between an electrophile and a nucleophile?
Nucleophiles are by definition classified as lewis bases. They donate electrons to electrophiles. Electrophiles are a chemical species that accept a pair of electrons. An easy way to remember this is that nucleophiles are nucleus loving. Electrophiles are electron loving.
Can you describe allosteric inhibition as it relates to noncompetitive inhibition?
In allosteric inhibition, the inhibitor binds at a site other than the active site. This binding changes the enzyme to reduce its activity. Allosteric inhibition can be further divided into allosteric competitive and allosteric noncompetitive. You will notice that noncompetitive inhibition is a subset of allosteric inhibition. This is a situation where all thumbs are fingers but not all fingers are thumbs. Not all allosteric inhibition is noncompetitive, but all noncompetitive inhibition is allosteric. Think about it this way. A noncompetitive inhibitor is not competing with the enzymes substrate. It is, however, reducing the likelihood of that substrate to bind at its active site. It does this by binding to a spot on the enzyme other than the active site. Think of a bank vault as an enzyme catalyzing a reaction for some guy to get really rich. A bank robber would be the vaults substrate. The bank robber enters the bank and commands the teller to let him in the vault. The teller hits a secret button alerting the police. The teller never wanted to get into the vault, but she was able to reduce the likelihood of the robber gaining entrance. This is a real life example of noncompetitive inhibition.
If someone is to have decreased sensation over an entire dermatome, where would you suspect a lesion? What would this lesion be called?
If there is decreased sensation over an entire dermatome the cause will be a lesion on a single spinal root. Dermatomes are areas of cutaneous innervation (areas on the skin) that are supplied with sensory innervation from a single spinal cord root. This type of lesion is called a radiculopathy.