What's the difference between a Neapolitan chord and a major triad?
There's no difference if you're just looking looking at the chord all by itself. But a Neapolitan chord is a major triad whose root is the lowered second degree of the key (e.g., in A minor it would be a Bb major triad). It is used as a way of approaching the V chord - most commonly when in a minor key. And it's usually in first inversion. Main thing to remember in voicing the Neapolitan chord is that its root is the upper leading tone of the tonic note and it wants to go home. So whatever voice has that lowered second degree should be the one that moves to the tonic. With typical Neapolitans it often gets there by way of a temporary detour to the leading tone.
What is the difference between rhythm and beat?
Rhythm can be confused with beat, because sometimes the beat is also the rhythm. For instance, in a piece with a 4/4 time signature a section of only quarter notes would be both the beat and the rhythm. However, while beat must be constant, rhythm is, by definition, variable. Rhythm is the length and accent given to a series of notes in a piece. In most Western music, rhythm and pitch go hand in hand to create a melody. The rhythm determines the length of the notes and the pitch whether they go up or down. A noted exception is plain chant, in which the singer concentrates solely on the pitch and allows the lyrics to move the melody along without rhythm. Beside the length of notes, rhythm is also created when some notes are emphasized over others. Standard Western music puts the emphasis on the first note of a measure, but putting the emphasis on the second and fourth, or back beats, can create a new type of rhythm.
How does schema help you understand when you are reading?
Schema is our background knowledge. Schema is all the stuff that’s already inside your head, like places you’ve been, things you’ve done, books you’ve read, all the experiences you’ve had. By connecting texts to our schema, we understand and remember the text better.