What is the process of nerve cell stimulation?
Normal resting potential of a cell is about -70mV. When a nerve cell is stimulated, the causes voltage-gated Na+ channels to open, and Na+ floods into the cell, causing depolarization of the membrane, and the charge to rise to about +30mV. Then voltage-gated K+ channels are opened, causing K+ to flood out of the cell. This repolarizes the cell back to a negative charge. An overshoot occurs, leading to hypepolarization of the cell.
What are the different structures of a protein?
The primary structure is the single polypeptide chain, the secondary structure is formation of alpha helices and beta sheets, through hydrogen bonding, the tertiary structure is the interaction of the different secondary structures of the polypeptide through weak interactions, and the quaternary structure is the interaction of multiple polypeptide chains.
How does a cell's metabolism produce ATP?
In the cytoplasm of a cell, a glucose molecule is converted to two pyruvate through a process called glycolysis, also producing ATPs and NADHs. Then pyruvate is converted into acetyl-CoA, which is used in a process called the TCA cycle. The TCA cycle produces more ATP, as well as NADHs, FADH, and CO2. The NADHs and FADH are then utilized in a process known as the electron transport chain. In this process, the protons from the molecules are pumped across the mitochondrial membrane against their concentration gradiant, due to different redox potentials. Then the protons are pumped back in, towards their concentration gradient, through an ATP synthase molecule, producing ATP.