How did the European States show their disregard for the African peoples during imperialism?
In 1884, the Berlin Conference was held to divide up the lands within the continent of Africa. However, their were no Africans actually present. Instead, representatives from the major nations of Europe divided the content with no regard for cultural boundaries. Indeed, the Europeans only had their own economic gain on their minds. After the borders were set, there were numerous instances of massive discrimination and acts of prejudice, and even genocide. In the Belgian Congo, the Congolese people were essentially enslaved and regularly beaten and mutilated as they farmed rubber for the Belgian Empire. In Namibia, the Germans placed the Herero people into concentration camps. In South Africa, the British slaughtered the Zulu to prove their dominance over the indigenous peoples. In Rwanda, the Belgians created classes of people with no regard for the future consequences. These are only a few of the blatant instances of disregard for Africans during the age of imperialism.
How did the unification of Germany (1871) shift the balance of power in Europe?
The unification of Germany shifted the balance of power in Europe in an incredible way. Prior to German unification, Austria and France were two of the most powerful nations in Europe, as set forth by the Congress of Vienna (1815). With the help of Otto Von Bismarck, Prussia unified as Germany in 1871. Otto Von Bismarck helped accomplish this feat through "blood and iron." The Prussians decimated the Austrians in the Seven Weeks War, revealing the military weakness and lack of industrialization that plagued Austria. Furthermore, the Prussians destroyed the French and forced the nation to pay massive war reparations, greatly weakening the economy. When Germany emerged, the nation was the most powerful on the continent. Though Prussia had been a great military power before, the peoples had never been unified in the way that they were now, creating a strong sense of nationalism in this new German nation.
What techniques differentiated Renaissance art from Medieval art?
Renaissance art began a movement that emphasized realism. Renaissance artists employed the technique of geometric perspective to create depth and a three-dimensional look in their art. Renaissance artists also used chiaroscuro (contrasting light and dark colors) to create further depth. Additionally, Renaissance artists, like Leonardo da Vinci, used the technique of sfumato (the blurring of lines/adding a smoky effect) to create softer, more realistic lines, features in paintings. Finally, Renaissance artists incorporate the ideals of humanism by creating paintings that captured the emotion of their subjects.