Write a 5-7 paragraph essay on the topic of why wars keep reoccurring by focusing one prominent scholar's school of thought in the field of International Relations.
It has often been said that history never repeats itself, but it can rhyme. And it should be no surprise to historians that war has been a reoccurring theme since the dawn of man. In the realm of International Relations, there are many prominent scholars who have attempted to explain why wars keep reoccurring, but none do it better than Kenneth Waltz. The reason that Hans Morgenthau’s classical realist approach is subpar to Kenneth Waltz’s neorealist theory comes down to the fact that Morgenthau does not stress the importance of the international system which Waltz lays out specifically in his argument. Kenneth Waltz is looked at as the father of Neorealism. Waltz was able to break off from the classical realist school of thought and point towards three distinct factors, which are at the root of war: man, state, and the anarchic international system. In Waltz’s paper, Man, the State, and War he argues that under anarchy, states provide for “their own security, and threats or seeming threat to their security abound” (Waltz 1988, p. 619). What Waltz has argued is that states do not simply go to war because the leaders of said states feel like going to war. To prove this point, Waltz relates war with the catastrophic earthquake that hit San Francisco. Waltz said, “Asking who won a given war, someone has said, is like asking who won the San Francisco earthquake. That in wars there is no victory but only varying degrees of defeat” (Waltz 2001, p. 1). As it is made clear, war is not fought for the sake of fighting a war. Waltz is always able to point back to the international system of anarchy as the catalyst for states to wage war against each other. As we go along with Waltz’s theory of an anarchic international system, we are led to believe that every state’s purpose is survival. Every state government is familiar with the Charles Darwin’s theory about “survival of the fittest,” and tends to do everything in their power to stay alive. This continual though process about always trying to survive is what drives Waltz’s ideas about security in the international system. He argues that there is such thing as a “security dilemma” wherein “measures that enhance one state’s security typically diminish that of others” (Waltz 1988, p. 619). In a world where every state is trying to survive, whenever a state enhances their security measures (whether with good or bad intentions), surrounding states no matter what will feel threatened. For example, if there are three countries on the planet: Country A, B, & C, and country B decides to fortify its borders for safety, no matter what A and C are going to feel threatened because B’s security has just gone up. This dilemma also reinforces Waltz’s idea (and Neorealism in general) of the anarchic international system and the fact that states value their safety and security over everything else. Now Waltz’s view of the world operating under an anarchic international system would be dismissed if there were some sort of governing body that had absolute authority over every country. But the fact of the matter is that due to this lack of a central authority, states are in an eternal survival mode mentality. And no state will ever willingly be at the bottom of the pack because they too understand the inherit risks of being weak. Waltz puts it best when he says “excessive weakness may invite an attack that greater strength would have dissuaded” (Waltz 1988, p. 616). This statement not only highlights the need to be a strong and powerful state, but the fact that states are acting in their own self interest when they seek power rather than simply fantasizing about it. Waltz makes it clear in his writing that security is number one on the list for states because security ensure survival and every country wants to survive. The main difference between realists and neorealists is the simple fact that realists believe power is the driving force for states where neorealists believe that security is the driving force. Snyder puts it best for realism when he says, “realism instills a pragmatic appreciation of the role of power” (Snyder 2004, p. 55). This narrow-minded approach leaves other elements that lead to war out. While both realists and neorealists can come to a consensus that war is driven by an ever-changing power shift, realists affirm that human behavior and the nature of states continue to be the main causes of war. In the end, the international system of anarchy is truly what puts Waltz and his neorealist theory above the rest of the leading ideas for the causes of war. Waltz argues that his theory will continue unless there is a major change to the international system of anarchy.
Choose the community service activity that is most meaningful to you and describe how you and your community benefitted from your involvement.
I remember reading Frankl’s book, Man’s Search for Meaning, where he expresses that the meaning of life is found in every moment of living. The most meaningful service I have had the privilege to lead so far is my Eagle Scout project. I hold myself accountable to “be the change I wish to see in the world.” When I first joined Boy Scouts at age six, I was interested in learning new things and achieving badges. As I grew older, I appreciated the hard work necessary to achieve each rank. Eagle exemplifies man’s service to humanity. I dedicated my project to Interfaith Community Services, an organization committed to giving the homeless “a hand up, not a hand out.” Its goal is to provide transitional housing to assist the homeless in becoming contributing members of society. I identified the need, scoped the work, and led a team of volunteers to refurbish a 2 bedroom, 2 bathroom apartment for a homeless mother and her three children living in a compact car. Stripping the apartment, painting, furnishing, and providing food, clothes, school supplies, and welcoming them to the their new home was a life changing experience. I will never forget the moment when I turned over the keys and gave the family a tour of their new home. I learned that people are ready to rally in service of each other – but it takes a leader to recognize a need, connect willing participants, and make it happen.
What is probation and how common is, or isn’t it, relative to other sentences in or out of prison?
Probation is a type of criminal sanction that allows the convicted individual to serve his or her sentence in their community while under supervision. Contrary to popular belief, prison is not the most used form of correction in the United States. There is more than double the amount of people on probation / community corrections than the amount of people in jail / prison. Probation is the most used form of correction and is seen as a cheaper alternative to imprisoning an individual as well as a more successful form of correction in regards to rehabilitation.