Describe three differences between civil and criminal law.
In civil law, the burden of proof used is the balance of probabilities whereas in criminal law, the burden of proof used is beyond reasonable doubt. This means that in a criminal trial, it must be almost certain that the defendant is guilty of committing the crime whereas in a civil trial, it must only be likely that the defendant is liable for the wrong suffered. The aims of civil and criminal law are also different. Civil law usually aims to resolve disputes between individuals whereas criminal law usually aims to prevent or punish behaviour that is dangerous or unacceptable to society. Finally, in a civil case, the person who is seeking compensation (called the claimant) is the person who brings the case to court. In a criminal case, on the other hand, the Crown Prosecution Service brings the case to court on behalf of the victim of the crime.
Describe the main differences between Bowlby's theory of attachment, and the behaviourist theory of attachment. Which theory do you think is more convincing, and why?
Bowlby argued that it is an instinct for babies to form an attachment with one main person who provides them with care. He called this attachment to one person 'monotropy' and believed that it must happen before the end of a critical period (before the child turns three years old). If the attachment does not form within the critical period, the child is likely to suffer serious consequences. On the other hand, behaviourist theory argues that forming attachments is not an instinct, but a behaviour which the child learns. This learning happens by reinforcement, which can be positive or negative. For example, when a baby cries and their caregiver feeds them, both the baby and the caregiver receive positive reinforcement. The baby learns that it gets fed if it interacts with the caregiver, and the caregiver learns that the baby will be quiet if they feed it. If the caregiver did not feed the baby, the baby would keep crying. This would be negative reinforcement for the caregiver. They are punished for not meeting the baby's needs by the noise of the crying. Overall, it is beneficial to both of them to interact with each other in a positive way, so the attachment forms. In my opinion, the behaviourist theory is more convincing. Bowlby's theory does not take account of the fact that babies can develop more than one important attachment, or that children can become attached to people even after they turn three (for example, children who are fostered or adopted). The behaviourist theory can explain both of these situations.
Select and analyse the effect of one technique used by William Blake in his poem 'The Tyger'.
Blake uses a fairly regular rhyming scheme in this poem, except for the last two lines of the poem: "What immortal hand or eye, Dare frame thy fearful symmetry?". 'Eye' and 'symmetry' are half-rhymes, so they sound similar but are still slightly discordant compared to the rest of the poem's rhyming scheme. This makes these lines almost jarring to the reader, particularly when the poem is read out loud. The fact that the word 'symmetry', a word which usually indicates harmony and patterns, is the word which does not properly rhyme adds a further layer of irony which makes these two lines stand out even further. Overall, this inconsistency in the rhyming scheme has the effect of leaving the reader feeling quite uncomfortable at the end of the poem. It makes Blake's final question to the reader stand out and seem more blunt and probing, and gives the impression that there is no neat, regular answer to this question. The irregularity of the rhyme therefore reflects the confusing and difficult nature of the subject matter, and forces the reader to consider this even after the poem has come to its end.