Briefly, explain the basic use of the prepositional case when using a Russian noun in a sentence and describe how to form it.
The prepositional case is used to designate a place, or a person (object) that is an object of speech and thought. This case is always used with a preposition. For example: Она мечтает о лете She dreams ABOUT the summer Цветы стоят на столе The flowers are ON the table лето --> лете (the ending -о becomes -е) стол --> столе (the ending -е is added) The prepositional is formed from the nominative singular nouns with the help of the following endings: -e, -и, -у, -ю (singular); -ax, -яx (plural). You will generally need to remove the last letter from the nominative singular noun and add one of these endings based on the gender of the noun and its last letter. All feminine nouns ending in -ь, -ие, neuter nouns ending in -ие, as well as masculine nouns ending in -ий get the new ending -и in the prepositional case. Some masculine nouns end in -у, -ю in the prepositional when used after the prepositions в and на. For example: в саду, на краю, на берегу. (The concepts above are complicated to a novice learner, especially for students not familiar with use of cases in the languages they already know. During the lesson covering cases, I explain all concepts at the student's preferred pace and with more examples than those listed above.)
Identify the key difference between passive and active transport, when considering transfer of molecules across a cell membrane.
The key difference between passive and active transport is the direction of the concentration gradient. In passive transport, passage of molecules occurs from the side of the membrane where the type of molecule is found in greater concentration to the side of the membrane where the particular molecule type is in lower concentration. In active transport, transfer of molecules occurs against the concentration gradient and requires input of energy.
List some of the basic factors you will consider when treatment planning an implant for an average dental patient.
1. History - General health - Contra-indicating medical conditions (absolute and relative) - Medications (anticoagulants, immunosuppressants, bisphosphonates, radiation) - Chief complaint (patient wants, needs and expectations) - Psychological status ' - Oral health - Reason for tooth loss and time since tooth extraction - Lifestyle factors (smoking, alcohol) - Destructive habits (bruxing) - Other treatment options (denture, do nothing, cost) 2. Clinical examination - Jaw opening and access for surgery - Esthetic assessment (smile line, tooth position) - Tissue biotype - Pre-existing oral disease (caries, periodontitis) - General condition of dental work - Patient's plaque control - Occlusion — cross-bite, parafunction, attrition 3. Site assessment - Adequacy of space for restoration — vertical and horizontal - Adequacy of space for implant placement — dimensions of bone in edentulous area - Inter-implant distance — if placing multiple implants - Opposing teeth - degree of eruption, restorations - Adjacent teeth — angulation, restorations, gingival height, bone levels - Location ofvital structures — inferior dental nerve, sinus, mental foramen - Existing bone level and shape of ridge - Soft tissue contour — consider possible need for a graft - Bony pathology — e.g. periapical lesion, cyst, root tips, infection - Amount of keratinized mucosa - Use study models, radiographs, surgical guide - Cone beam tomography - bone volume, dimensions and quality