Describe each section of a basic social science journal article in order of appearance.
Abstract: a generic summary of all parts of the article, including introduction, results, and discussion. Introduction: the subject of the study is introduced (including variables and hypotheses), and a review of the current literature on the topic is provided. Methods: details on the study and how it was conducted are given. Included are information concerning the sample, procedures, and measures. Results: results for the study are stated, including descriptive statistics on the variables, whether the hypothesis was confirmed, and the results of the statistics that were run. Discussion: statistical results are explained in the context of the current study. Limitations of the study are stated, and future implications discussed.
(1/4) + (3/4)^2 - (1 +1/8)
1 and (15/16)
Describe corporal punishment (spanking) through the lens of a behaviorism. Explain the specific behavior learning theory chosen, and provide details for how corporal punishment "fits" in this theory.
Behavior learning theories focus on the responsibility of regulation. In operant conditioning, the parent applies contingencies (positive or negative consequences) aimed to change the child’s behavior, shaping the child’s actions into the behavior that is desired. Spanking is considered a positive punishment in light of this theory, as the parent is applying something undesirable to the child (the spank) to decrease the undesired behavior. This specific punishment would be categorized in the object/opportunity category of contingency. With spanking, parental control is high, the punishment is an action performed by the parent, and the child’s own morals do not come into play.