Who is Sigmund Freud and what is psychoanalysis ?
Sigmund Freud is considered to be the father of psychiatry. Among his many accomplishments is, arguably, the most far-reaching personality schema in psychology: the Freudian theory of personality. The Psychoanalytic Theory is based on the notion that an individual gets motivated more by unseen forces that are controlled by the conscious and the rational thought. Psychoanalysis is a school of psychology founded by Sigmund Freud. Freud believed that the human mind was composed of three elements: the id, the ego, and the superego. The id consists of primal urges while the ego is the component of personality charged with dealing with reality. The superego is the part of personality that holds all of the ideals and values we internalize from our parents and culture. Freud believed that the interaction of these three elements was what led to all of the complex human behaviors. Freud's school of thought was enormously influential, but also generated considerable debate. This controversy existed not only in his time, but also in modern discussions of Freud's theories. Despite many reincarnations, Freud’s theory is criticized by many (e.g. for its perceived sexism) and it remains the focus of hot discussions on its relevance today.
What is the difference between Renaissance and Reformation?
The two are movements that shaped the culture and history of much of our world. The Renaissance was a cultural movement. It spanned between the 14th and 17th centuries. It is interesting to note that the Renaissance began in Florence in Italy in the Late Middle Ages. It spread to various parts of Europe later. The Reformation on the other hand was the European Christian reform movement which established Protestantism as a branch of Christianity and hence the Reformation is also called by names the Protestant Reformation and the Protestant Revolt. The term Renaissance is generally used to refer to the historic era and cultural era whereas the term Reformation is quite often used to refer to the religious era. "Renaissance" is a French word meaning "rebirth". The usage of the word Renaissance extends to the representation of other cultural movements too such as Carolingian Renaissance and the Renaissance of the 12th century. During Reformation the so called reformers opposed the practice, doctrines and ecclesiastical structure of the Roman Catholic Church with a view to create what are called new national Protestant churches. It is interesting to note that the Catholics too responded to the Reformation made by the reformers by means of their Counter Reformation. One of the main differences between the Renaissance and Reformation is that the former started at Florence and ended spreading in different parts of Europe too, where as the latter spread only to the northern Europe. The southern Europe remained Catholic for that matter. It is to be understood well that the Renaissance paved the way for the advancement in art and architecture, whereas the Reformation paved the way for religious fragmentation. One of the distinguishing features of the Renaissance art was the delineation of linear perspective in its art pieces. On the other hand religious Reformation movement showed doctrinal differences among the reformers that led to the factions such as Puritans, the Lutheran, the Presbyterian and the Reformed.
Converting direct speech into indirect speech can be quite tricky and can be a hurdle to perfecting your English. In grammar, when you report someone else’s statement in your own words without any change in the meaning of the statement is called indirect speech. Quoting a person’s words without using his own word and bringing about any change in the meaning of the statement is called reported speech. A very basic example would be : Q. She says, “I eat an apple a day.” A. She says that she eats an apple a day. Try to convert the following sentences from direct to indirect speech. 1. The teacher said to me, “Shut the door.” 2. You said to me, “Have you read the article?” 3. He said, “Hurrah! My friend has come".
Some of the most important things to be careful about is what kind of sentence it is, the tense and the verb used and the punctuation. We can convert the sentences from direct to indirect speech by keeping these basic rules in mind. 1. The teacher ordered me to shut the door. This sentence is called an imperative sentence. Here, the reporting verb is changed according to reported speech into an ORDER because the sentence makes a request. 2. You asked me if I had read the article. When it is an interrogative sentence , the reporting verb SAID To is changed into ASKED and the punctuation is changed from a question mark to a full stop as well. 3. He exclaimed joyfully that his friend had come. This is an exclamatory sentence. When there is an interjection i.e., alas, aha, hurray, aha etc in the reported speech, then they are omitted along with the exclamation mark. The reporting verb here is replaced with exclaimed joyfully or exclaimed with joy. In indirect speech, the exclamatory sentence usually becomes an assertive sentence.