Historically what is the root cause of the violence between the Shiite and Sunni sects of Islam?
The root cause of the violence comes from the different perspectives that each group had regarding the succession of leadership after the death of Muhammad. The Shiite sect believes that only one who is directly related to the prophet Muhammad can lead the Muslim world. On the other hand the Sunni sect believes that this leadership can be appointed. Throughout the history of the Muslim world various acts of violence rooted in this conflict have led to distrust between the two groups.
How does the phrase "wall of separation between church and state" as quoted by Thomas Jefferson in his Letter to the Danbury Baptists expand upon our knowledge of the founders intent in regard to the 1st amendment of the U.S. Constitution?
It expands our knowledge by revealing that the founders intended there to be a strong separation between the power of the government and the powers of the church, taken with other statements from the founders, this would strengthen the argument for a completely secular U.S. government.
What is the difference between the trustee model of representation and the delegate model of representation?
In the Trustee Model constituents elect their representatives as trustees, trusting that they have the knowledge to act in favor of the common good often at the expense of short-term constituent interest. In the Delegate Model constituents expect their representatives to act strictly according to the constituents' collective will.