In the Nicomachean Ethics book 8 and 9, Aristotle discusses friendship and the value of different types of friendship. What are these three types and what do they generally entail?
The lowest type of friendship is guided by prudence and practicality, this friendship corresponds to the appetite/utility portion of the human soul. These are relationships that we have purely out of convenience to ourselves; both parties are being exploited by the other. Acquaintances exist under this type of friendship and so do other casual relationships such as customers, salesman, waiters, and several others. The second level of friendship is based on pleasure and is guided by our passions/feelings rather than simply utility. These include companions and most friends that people generally possess in their lives; though they lack the permanence and same level of concern as the final type they are still valuable and necessary in our lives. The aforementioned types of friendship are easily dissolved as a result of no longer providing a service, coming to a disagreement, or gradually growing apart. The third type of friendship is based on the good/knowledge in each other and is guided by love; this type of friendship is founded upon shared values and is the rarest of the three according to Aristotle. These friendships are established on both sides, are holistic, and actions taken are taken for the friends sake. The third type of friendship is not easily dissolved and has even been said to continue on even after one of those friends has moved away, passed away, or faced some other misfortune or condition. This third order of friendship should include the sharing of perspectives and accounts rather than simply a mutual admiration for the character of the other.
Provide a brief explanation of Cognitive Dissonance
Cognitive Dissonance is the tension that results when a belief that is held by an individual conflicts with an action that is taken contrary to that belief. This leads to either a reconciliation or alteration of these beliefs over a period of time. This form of dissonance is particularly influential when self-image is central to that particular belief. (ex. Those that steal are thieves and thieves are bad people)
Obama has attempted to reassure the American people that the current military efforts against ISIS are effective, despite this, many suggest alternatives and criticize certain aspects of the current military strategy. What is an example of an alternative method that has been suggested?
Although Obama has claimed that America has “no appetite for another American-led war in the Middle-East”; many citizens, military leaders, and state representatives have suggested the large-scale deployment of troops (or 'boots on the ground) in the Middle-East. This is expected to have a more severe and immediate impact on ISIS casualties and would be expected to limit the mobility of this group and others in the region. Questions regarding US military casualties and escalation (war) have been raised against this proposal. Congress and the POTUS (President of the United States) are in an on-going discussion regarding these alternatives and their implications for the future of this conflict.