Tutor profile: Savannah K.
Subject: Organic Chemistry
What solvent is acceptable for an sn2 reaction between 1-bromobutane and sodium hydroxide?
sn2 reactions require a polar aprotic solvent meaning a solvent that has a strong dipole but has no hydrogen bonding. This is because a polar aprotic solvent is soluble with the nucleophile(the reactant replacing the leaving group i.e sodium hydroxide) but it will not react with the nucleophile unlike a protic solvent(like H2O). Bromine is an excellent leaving group due to its ability to distribute charge so stability is not an issue therefore any polar aprotic solvent will do. DMF or DMSO is a good choice since it can be used without additional solvent.
What is the second derivative forf(x)= x^2? Is it increasing, decreasing or remaining constant?
The formula for a derivative is f'(x)=nx^(n-1). f(x)=x^2, n is equal to 2, and x is equal to the x in our equation. Therefore the first derivative is f'(x)=2x^(2-1) which is equal to 2x. The formula for the second derivative follows the same equation, the only difference is that we are going to be using our first derivative for to find the equation. Here, n is 1 since x is raised to the first power therefore f''(x)=2(1)x^(1-1). Any number raised to the power of zero is one so x is equal to one and the formula for the second derivative is f''(x)=2(1)=2 Graphing this, one can tell that the function is constant.
Subject: Basic Chemistry
What is the hybridization of carbon bond in cis-1,2 dichloroethene?
The carbon is sp2 hybridized. Looking at carbon, one notices it has one double bond which means it has one p orbital. Since an atom must have a total of four orbitals, this means that the three remaining must be hybridized. There can only be one s orbital in the hybridization so the remaining must be 2 p orbitals. 1s plus 2 p orbitals gives a combination of sp2.
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