Name the four major types of organic compounds found in organisms.
The four major types of organic compounds are lipids, carbohydrates, proteins, and nucleic acids.
What is a Bronsted-Lowry base?
A Bronsted-Lowry base is a proton acceptor. I like to think of it as the compound gaining a hydrogen to become more positive. For example, in the chemical reaction H2O + NH3 -> OH- + NH4+, NH3 is the Bronsted base because it accepts a hydrogen from water to become the ammonium ion NH4+.
How can a trait be seen in the offspring if the parents did not have that trait based on their phenotype?
There are various modes of inheritance in genetics. In this particular situation, the trait could you autosomal recessive if the phenotype was not present in the parents, but present in the offspring. For example, let's say the gene for fur color has two possible alleles: black or yellow. We shall say that black is dominant to yellow, meaning that if a labrador retriever has one allele for black fur color and the other for yellow, the dog will show black fur. This dog would be called a heterozygote, having one of each type of allele. If this heterozygote dog mates with another heterozygous labrador, then there is a 25% chance that one of their puppies will be a yellow labrador. This is because each allele is equally likely to be inherited since each pup gets one from the mom and one from the dad. Therefore, this would be an example of an autosomal recessive type of inheritance.