Please explain the appropriate uses of a semi-colon, colon, and dash in laymen's terms.
A semi-colon is used when there are two coordinating ideas that are closely related, but are too long to be used in a single sentence. A colon is used before introducing a list (i.e.: I will be buying five things at the grocery store today: fruit, bread, meat, yogurt, and milk). A colon can also be used to provide emphasis on a single word after a description (i.e.: There is only one president who has shown bravery in the face of extreme fear and duress: Abraham Lincoln). Finally, a dash is used to provide additional detail to a sentence that is not necessarily needed, but provides additional information that may be of interest to the reader. Typically, if the words encased by the dashes are "covered up" by the reader, the sentence can still very easily be understood.
Please explain the phenomenon of the bystander effect in society. How does could this effect day to day life? What is a case that exemplifies the ramifications of the bystander effect?
The bystander effect is, put simply, the belief that someone else in a crowd will take care of an emergency or provide assistance so that you do not have to. For example, if a man is lying on the ground in pain and yelling for help, the bystander effect would tell those passing by that someone else will help him, call emergency services, etc., and that they have no obligation to provide assistance. This poses problems, as very real issues may occur that may not be addressed by those observing these instances. For example, it is taught to young children that you must point at someone and directly instruct them to dial 911 instead of just yelling out to the crowd to dial 911- when individual instructions are given, the person is more likely to follow through and provide assistance, whereas in the other instance, the crowd would simply assume it would be taken care of by someone else. An example is the case of Kitty Genovese, in which a young woman was raped and murdered with no intervention despite 38 witnesses being present.
In Shakespeare's Romeo and Juliet, there are multiple parental figures portrayed. Please pick two of these figures and explain why they could be considered to be parental figures in the story. What is their significance?
In Romeo and Juliet, two figures that could be considered parental include Juliet's nurse and the Friar. Juliet's nurse has known her since she was just a baby, and arguably knows Juliet better than her own mother. She provides encouragement to Juliet regarding her choices for Romeo and to find love, and ultimately contributes to the final tragedy that really creates the core of Romeo and Juliet. The Friar is arguably represented as a father figure to Romeo, as he, like Juliet's nurse, provides encouragement for Romeo regarding the relationship, and also acts as the catalyst for the tragedy. Through both of these characters the tragedy is able to take form, and the readers are also able to very much see the young age of both characters and the tragic love that takes hold of the story line.