How is the domain and range of a function determined?
The domain of a function f(x) is defined as all the values of x that can be plugged into the function and result in a real output. For example the function f(x)=1/x the domain is all real numbers excluding for 0, because 0 would make the function undefined. The range of a function f(x) is defined as all the possible output values of the function. The domain of f(x)=1/x is also all real numbers except for 0 because there is no value of x that can make f(x)=0.
What is the difference between classical conditioning and operant conditioning?
The difference between these modes of conditioning is the types of responses they create--either involuntary (classical) or voluntary (operant). Classical conditioning is concerned with the pairing of a neutral stimulus and an automatic response. This means that classical conditioning is related to involuntary behavior in response to a stimulus. Contrarily, operant conditioning is concerned with voluntary behavior and uses punishments and rewards to elicit the wanted behavior.
What is the difference between a chemical and physical change?
The main difference between a chemical and physical change is that in a chemical change the identity of the substance is changed or a new substance is produced, whereas in a physical change the identity of the substance remains constant. For example, simply cutting up a piece of paper is a physical change because the paper has not changed its identity--it is still paper but in smaller pieces. On the other hand, burning a piece of paper changes its identity and creates new substances, such as the gas given off while the paper is burning. One short cut to make this distinction is that a physical change can fairly easily be reversed while a chemical change cannot.