Tutor profile: Catherine A.
What is the limbic system and what is it comprised of? Explain the functions.
The limbic system is comprised of the amygdala, hippocampus, thalamus, and hypothalamus. The cingulate gyrus and basal ganglia are close by the limbic system creating a close relationship between the two. The amygdala is located by the hippocampus and is responsible for how we feel about situations beyond our control. When an event is possibly dangerous or threatening, the amygdala is in charge of the way we react to this particular situation. The hippocampus is found in each temporal lobe; this is on each side of the brain where a persons temples meet. The hippocampus manages a person’s long-term memory, as well as spatial navigation and memory, and emotional responses. An individual would not be able to locate their home or workplace without the use of the hippocampus or form new memories to eventually be processed into long-term memory. The thalamus is located above the brainstem; it works as a transitioning system from the sensory receptors to the next area it needs to be processed. This includes senses such as visual, auditory, tactile, and gustatory. Besides sensory interpretation, the thalamus is also in control of the sleep/wake cycle and regulation of consciousness. The hypothalamus is also located above the brain stem but underneath the thalamus, it is considered apart of the limbic system and is accountable for innate driven behaviors such as hunger and thirst. It is also responsible for homeostasis, keeping the person’s body temperature at a maintained level. Lastly, the hypothalamus controls the pituitary gland, which helps regulate the endocrine system. This intimate relationship helps the nervous system an endocrine system work with one another. The anterior cingulate cortex is relative to the limbic system because it shares similar structural location as well as functions. The functions include regulating blood pressure, heart rate, reward system, uncomfortable emotions, and impulse control. The anterior cingulate cortex connects the functions in the limbic system together but is not apart of any of the functions themselves. All of the structures that comprise the limbic system are apart of rewarding feelings or personal pleasure. This can be in relation to satisfying hunger, thirst, or a drug addiction.
What is the relationship between Sigmund Freud and Melanie Klein and how did Melanie Klein expand on Freud's theories? Compare and contrast.
Sigmund Freud is known as one of the most reputable psychology theorists throughout history. The birth of psychology and psychiatry began with Sigmund Freud’s initial observations of the human mind and the continual progression of different theories as the times changed. Some of the theories Sigmund Freud proposed early on were later adapted during his lifetime as well as after. Melanie Klein, a psychoanalyst was one of the many theorists who were able to build off of the theories Sigmund Freud once created. Klein’s extensive research into Sigmund Freud’s theories included Oedipus complex, object relations theory, relations between mother and child, and her specific research involving non-verbal communication between children and/or adults as well as many other liberalist views that clashed with other theorists. Melanie Klein’s expansion on Sigmund Freud’s theories was not favored well amongst individual’s like ego psychologists, this could have been because of her progressive interpretations stemming from Sigmund Freud were seen as an interpretation mainly relating to her personal life. Although theories are typically subjective views, Kleinian theories did not sit well since she seemed to have radical concepts that could have been more subjective than necessary. This heavy influence came from Klein’s dark and depressive history that she experienced growing up in Vienna amongst her parents and her young marriage to a man that made her feel confined until the birth of her three children. Klein was able to perform small experimental tasks on her children in order to stay involved with her theories until she moved away from her husband. Unlike Sigmund Freud, Klein wanted children to be analyzed in a new and more radical way that was not closely associated to how adults were analyzed. Throughout play therapy, children could assume the identity of different roles along with the analyst in order to achieve the outcome of their unconscious minds being in clear view. The children could unknowingly express their desires and anxieties, which would be apparent to Klein. The nonverbal communication between adults and children with the tools as toys, or just the minimal verbal exchange that would lead into unconscious ideas showed that children are able to be analyzed, not in the same way as adults but with a different process that generates a similar outcome. This helped in creating connections in where the child would have anxieties if scenarios played out in a similar fashion to the role-play technique. Klein believed that these theories were not constrained to a certain sequence and that children have them existing in a more unrefined way since infancy. She figured that children would experience similar incestuous feelings associated with the Oedipal complex in different ways and regardless of age. This also applied to Sigmund Freud’s superego, a section in personality that is the last to obtain (around age 5) since it deals with balancing out amongst the ID and the ego. All three parts of the ego interact with one another with no clear-cut distinction and showing more of an effecting overlap from one to the next.
What is socialism and what adverse effects does it have on society?
Throughout history socialism is best described as an economic organization, a political movement, and a social philosophy. This political movement includes a theory that the federal or local government should control a nation’s utilized funds. Within Socialism, there is no private proprietorship of grounds, factories, as well as other miscellaneous methods of manufacturing goods. Socialists do not see eye to eye on many significant levels, where their views lie in different areas when it comes to power. Many socialists focus on having a powerful federal government managing the financial management although, other socialists opt for a concentrated amount of control within the local government. This country has never run on socialism. One can argue that socialism would not work, and give clear reasons why it would be bad for United States. Socialism states its fundamental premise that state control is superior to individual liberty and economic freedom. The purpose is to explore what adopting a socialist system would mean to Americans in practical terms. Americans who are in favor of socialism do not fathom this flawed concept, whether viewed as an economic system, a worldview, or in practical terms. Not only does socialism not work, it cannot work because of the shortcomings that revolve around an ineffective method in order for society to function to its fullest potential.
needs and Catherine will reply soon.