When writing, what is first order versus second order?
First order writing is when your writing is unstructured, creative, and you use your stream of consciousness to quickly get all your ideas down. This is often used for texting, brainstorming, conversations with friends, journals, and writing/speaking for casual audiences. Second order writing is well thought out using critical thinking and evidence, and is revised to perfect its structure. This is used mainly for serious messages/emails, interviews, academic essays, and writing/speaking to formal audiences.
What are gender roles? and what does "gender" really consist of?
Gender roles are a set of socially defined roles, expected behaviors and appearances. These gender roles can vary from culture to culture and over time. "Gender" is a non-binary, umbrella term that is not just another word for sex, as many people assume. Instead, it consists of three parts: assigned sex, gender identity, and gender expression. Assigned sex is the biological sex that you were assigned at birth, whether it's male, intersex, or female. Gender identity is what gender you feel that you are, which can include man, woman, neither, or anything in-between. Gender expression is how you choose to express yourself on the outside through appearance, which could be masculine, feminine, androgynous, or anything in-between. Out of these 3 parts, any assigned sex can line up with any identity and any expression.
When it comes to public communication and persuasion, what are effective methods for speaking to an audience?
When it comes to speaking to an audience, message strategies and source qualities are the most important concepts to understand. Message strategies use evidence and arguments to appeal to listeners and/or persuade them to listen and agree with your statements. These strategies include appeals to positive emotion, appeals to negative emotion, use of storytelling or myths, appealing to human needs, and appealing to cultural values. Source qualities are crucial because the audience will only trust what you're saying if you and your information are trustworthy. These qualities include credibility, similarity with the audience, likability, and physical attractiveness.