What is one suggestion for a form of guidance when your child is misbehaving?
State things in a positive manner. If your child is running in the house, telling them to stop running will likely lead them to continue the behavior. If you tell them what you would like them to do (i.e. "please walk inside the house") it is more likely they will listen to your directions. It is easier for them to understand what you want them to do rather than what you do not want them to do. Other examples may include things like "please keep your feet on the floor," "use a quieter voice when we are inside," "please keep your hands to yourself. Your sister's body is not for hitting," among many, many others.
Explain Erik Erikson's stages of psychological development.
Erikson believed that humans went through eight stages, or so-called crises. If these crises were not resolved, a human would have a hard time progressing and completing further stages and would gain a lower self-esteem. The eight stages are: 1. Trust vs. Mistrust - This stage occurs from birth to about 18 months. Infants are learning who and what to trust in their new world. They are forming attachments to their caregivers. If they cannot successfully do so, they may struggle with trust later in life. 2. Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt - This occurs from age 18 months to age 3. Toddlers are developing more control over their bodies, actions, environment, etc. A huge thing that happens in this time (usually) is potty training. They are seeking more independence. If they struggle to master skills and gain more independence, they may feel shameful and doubt themselves. 3. Initiative vs. Guilt - This occurs from ages 3 to 5. During this stage, children begin to practice more interpersonal skills. They create activities and games with other people. They ask many questions and want to learn. If this is discouraged and they receive a lot of criticism, they will begin to feel guilty. 4. Industry vs. Inferiority - This occurs from ages 5 to 12. Children here start to want acceptance from peers and society. They are developing skills rapidly in school. They feel the need to develop a society wanted skill and if they fail to do so they may feel inferior. 5. Identity vs. Role Confusion - This occurs from ages 12 to 18. In adolescence, children are struggling to find who they are and where they fit into the world. They are going through puberty, discovering likes and dislikes, entering and exiting relationships and friendships, figuring out what they want to do with their lives, among many other things. They are essentially transitioning from child to adult. Failure to figure out who they want to be can lead them to role confusion - being unsure of who they are and where they fit in society. 6. Intimacy vs. Isolation - This occurs from ages 18 to 40. This basis of this stage is love and relationships. Intimate relationships become more serious. People here are seeking commitment and love from another. The failure to do so can lead to depression, sadness, feelings of inadequacy, etc. 7. Generativity vs. Stagnation - This occurs from ages 40 to 65. Lives are well established at this point. Careers and families have been started. People are productive members of society. If the goals like these are not successful, people will begin to feel like they are not contributing worth to society and can become stagnant. 8. Integrity vs. Despair - This occurs from age 65 to death. This is the last of the stages. People reach being elderly. People look back and reflect on their past. They think about what they did and did not accomplish, what they regret, what they loved. If they do not feel like they led a good life, they may become guilty and dissatisfied.
What does it mean to employ developmentally appropriate practice in an early childhood classroom?
Developmentally appropriate practice focuses on development in each of the four areas: physical, cognitive, social, and emotional. This is also referred to as development of the whole child. DAP includes lesson plans, classroom setup, teacher/child interactions, teacher/child ratios, child initiated/caregiver directed play, inclusion of parents and family, respect and inclusion of a diverse classroom population, materials, etc. Being DAP means doing what is best for the child's developmental level. It allows them to explore their world in a safe, structured, exciting, engaging, education, supportive and fun manner.