The genome of yeast, a unicellular eukaryotic organism, has roughly 3000 genes coding for proteins, whereas the human genome is estimated to contain roughly 30,000 – 50,000 genes coding for proteins (the count is not precise because of uncertainties regarding whether certain segments of the chromosome are actually genes). When the human genome was decoded the fact that our chromosomes contain only 10 times as many genes was met with surprise, because most people would consider the complexity of a human being to be far greater than merely 10-fold greater than that of yeast. Discuss two mechanisms whereby the increased complexity of human physiology and behavior can be accounted for by a relatively small gene complement.
Alternative splicing of mRNA transcripts can lead to a variety of functionally distinct proteins from a single gene. Post translational protein modifications can also increase the variety of functions of proteins encoded by a single gene. An additional factor is that proteins form interacting networks. There is exponentially rising complexity given more members for most networks. Thus, having a 10 fold increase in members (proteins) gives much more than a 10 fold increase in complexity.
A phosphorus shortage in the soil would make it difficult for plants to produce: A. RNA B. Cellulose C. Starch D. Triglycerides E. Proteoglycans
Among the five choices, cellulose and starch are hydrocarbons, and consists only carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen. So shortage of phosphorus would not affect cellulose and starch production. Triglyceride is a kind of ester that consists of also carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen, so it will not be affected. Proteoglycan is a protein occurring in connective tissue, and proteins are polymers of amino acids which are made up of carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, and nitrogen, so it will not be affected. RNA is a nucleic acid with phosphodiester backbone, and lack of phosphorus would disrupt the synthesis of the phosphodiester backbone. So A. RNA is the answer
What is the complete solution to the equation |2x-3|=13?
the absolute value of 2x-3 is 13, so when removing the absolute value, we can get 2x-3=13 or -13. Adding 3 to both sides, we get 2x=16 or -10. Dividing both sides by 5, we get x=8 or -5