Tutor profile: Stephanie C.
Subject: Music Theory
What is the name of the chord progression that ends with V-vi, and when might you use this progression as a composer?
The progression from V-vi is called the "deceptive cadence." I would use it in composition when I want to mislead my listener into thinking the song is going to end or resolve, because it uses the leading tone to pull toward the I chord. Instead of ending, the vi chord redirects the ear to a continued progression, giving the composer time to continue winding the melody and supporting chord progression through additional tension, finally landing on the I chord in resolution.
What are some key characteristics of the Romantic Era?
The Romantic Era is my favorite era of the Classical Music genre! It is full of passion, breaking old composition forms (as well as duration and orchestration), and beautiful melodies with poignant leading chromaticism. This era broke out of old forms of music. Melodies rarely followed standard 8-bar phrasing, and larger forms like ABA were not as conducive to the emotive concepts these composers desired to convey. Music in this era went deeper--composers wanted to convey the full range of emotion and heavy concepts, such as Shostakovich and his 5th symphony. This symphony emotes despair as well as triumph, with some scholars believing that he masked musical retaliation against Stalin's purge of Russia with happy nationalism. Composers wanted to convey emotions, nationalism, and even the sublime that goes beyond verbal expression. Orchestration is another area that changed. Composers wanted to push the boundaries of music to this point, going for longer duration, (symphonies expanding from roughly 1 hour to 2), and they started adding additional instruments to the orchestra to increase the volume and also the range of the orchestra. For example, Mahler symphonies often call for 4 flutes and 2 piccolos, whereas the typical orchestra only seats 2 flutes and 1 piccolo; and Mahler symphonies often require well over 100 musicians, whereas previous orchestration from the Classical era only requires around 60 musicians. Composers also pushed the boundaries with chromaticism. Composers wanted to convey pain, sorrow, love, and deep emotions that wrench the soul in a more powerful way than yet explored, and they relied on the use of chromatic leading to create tension and prolong the journey to tonal release. Chord progressions became more complex, including unusual progressions that helped to enhance the winding melodies that went beyond 8-bar phrasing.
Why is the Behaviorist theory of education applicable to learning strategies for young students?
The Behaviorist theory of education is based on absorbing information in a passive manner so that students perform repetitive tasks to teach and reinforce information. It connects behavior to stimuli from external sources, such as modeling from the teacher or other students. When working with younger students, modeling behavior is effective because, although they may not be ready to cognitively digest the complexity of certain information, they can see their teacher and peers modeling appropriate behavior, (such as clapping in rhythm, sitting up straight, or walking in a straight line), and they receive positive reinforcement for their behavior. In early music education, students begin by repeating rhythms by rote, and then, when they have mastered rote expression, the teacher begins to explain the concepts necessary to synthesize themselves.
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