Tutor profile: Hannoori J.
Why does ice float?
A water molecule is made from one oxygen atom and two hydrogen atoms, strongly joined to each other with covalent bonds. Water molecules are also attracted to each other by weaker chemical bonds (hydrogen bonds) between the positively-charged hydrogen atoms and the negatively-charged oxygen atoms of neighboring water molecules. As water cools below 4°C, the hydrogen bonds adjust to hold the negatively charged oxygen atoms apart. This produces a crystal lattice, which is commonly known as 'ice'. Ice floats because it is about 9% less dense than liquid water. In other words, ice takes up about 9% more space than water, so a liter of ice weighs less than a liter water. The heavier water displaces the lighter ice, so ice floats to the top. One consequence of this is that lakes and rivers freeze from top to bottom, allowing fish to survive even when the surface of a lake has frozen over. If ice sank, the water would be displaced to the top and exposed to the colder temperature, forcing rivers and lakes to fill with ice and freeze solid.
Subject: Basic Chemistry
What will happen to the pressure inside of a sealed tube if you raise the temperature?
When you raise the temperature of any system, you are adding energy. That extra energy makes the molecules more active. If you have a sealed container, all of that activity helps to raise the pressure since the molecules are more energetic.
Why can some sea birds drink seawater but humans cannot?
Sea birds have supraorbital glands, or salt glands, above their eyes, which secrete excess salt from their blood. It functions similar to a kidney, but is much more efficient at excreting salt.
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