Définir ce qu'est une conjonction de subordination, suivi d'un exemple concret
La conjonction de subordination ou la locution conjonctive régit des modes différents, indicatif ou subjonctif, selon la fonction de la subordonnée qu'elle introduit, selon les circonstances — temps, cause, conséquence, but, concession, comparaison, condition, restriction, etc — et aussi selon certaines nuances, ou usages (familier ou régional - langue littéraire). On aura ainsi certaines locutions qui peuvent être suivies soit de l'indicatif, soit du subjonctif. Exemples : Tu t'amuses alors que je travaille. Indicatif Je travaille alors que je m'amuserais aussi si je le pouvais. (conditionnel ou futur hypothétique, la condition est exprimée : si je le pouvais.) Je travaille alors que je m'amuserais bien aussi. (conditionnel ou futur hypothétique, la condition n'est pas exprimée)
What is it the right monetary decision policy in time of recession?
Moderate inflation is good for the economy A steady but moderate increase in the general price level is the main objective of the monetary policies pursued by the major central banks. As such, an inflation rate of around 2% per year is considered by economists to be an optimal target. A moderate level of inflation is associated with several advantages: This allows companies to anchor their expectations of price increases in the medium and long term. The predictability of the latter is favourable to investment decisions as it reduces uncertainty about the future income generated by the investment. It also encourages households to invest their excess cash rather than hoarding it or keeping it in their bank accounts. Otherwise, monetary erosion would reduce the purchasing power of their savings. Moderate inflation therefore helps to ensure a balance between the level of savings and the level of investment without which interest rates would rise, thus limiting business investment projects. It also keeps interest rates low, since the central bank that sets the key interest rates does not need to restrict credit conditions to achieve its monetary policy objective. This is conducive to economic growth because households and businesses can borrow on attractive financial terms, both in nominal terms (the level of interest rates) and in real terms (the level of interest rates less inflation). However, too high inflation is harmful If inflation rises too high, it can have damaging repercussions for the entire economy: This leads to a deterioration in the price competitiveness of products manufactured in the country compared to products manufactured abroad. Indeed, if the prices of domestic products become higher than the same products manufactured abroad for a comparable quality, foreign demand may decrease (decrease in exports) while domestic demand for foreign products may increase (increase in imports). The result is a decline in activity for domestic companies, which is likely to lead to job cuts and therefore to an increase in unemployment. This increases uncertainty about the future level of prices. Companies are also adopting prudent investment behaviour because their profitability is difficult to anticipate. Too high inflation is therefore likely to reduce productive investment and therefore growth potential. This penalizes households if their wages are not indexed to price increases. They then suffer a loss of purchasing power that can lead them to reduce their consumption or to dissave to maintain their standard of living. But this favours borrowers because the real level of their debt is decreasing. However, it penalizes creditors for the opposite reasons.
In what ways could an accelerated decision-making process harm a company?
We have to understand that taking on a process, in our case concerning decision, is not an easy matter. It comprehends thorough and meticulous steps that have to be considered carefully. The core meaning of a decision-making process itself infers the need of general assessment of all variables that might affect the business. Therefore in that sense we have to understand first why decision-making is important. Then we will understand where lies the need of taking every steps carefully, rather than accelerating it. Moreover, by accelerating it the business might even omit other possibilities that might give better opportunities, and create relevant competitive advantages. So without further ados, let's get into it. Basic leadership is the demonstration of settling on a decision among accessible choices. There are innumerable choices that are taken by people in everyday life. In business endeavors, choices are made at each stride. It is likewise viewed as one of the significant capacity of the board. Administrative capacities like arranging, sorting out, staffing, coordinating, coordinating and controlling are helped through choices. Basic leadership is conceivable when there are at least two choices to take care of a solitary issue or trouble. On the off chance that there is just a single option, at that point, there is no doubt of basic leadership. It is trusted that administration without a choice is a man without a spine. In this manner, decision making is a critical thinking approach by picking a particular game-plan among different choices. Decision making is considered as the backbone for the business management because without taking the right decision at the right time, nothing can be performed. Indeed to get deeper into the problem we have to understand some points that explain the importance of this process Achievement of Goal/Objectives: Decision making is imperative to accomplish the hierarchical objectives/goals inside given time and spending plan. It looks through the best option, uses the assets legitimately and fulfills the representatives at the work environment. Subsequently, authoritative objective or goals can be accomplished according to the ideal outcome. Employees Motivation: Decision Making is essential to motivate the representatives inside an organization. It gives a general system of activity and rule to the working dimension of staffs. It additionally gives diverse kinds of offices and advantages on schedule. Therefore, representatives are roused to their activity or work according to the authoritative prerequisite. Proper Utilization of Resources: An organization has different assets like man, cash, technique, material, machine, market, and data. Every one of these assets is appropriately used with no spillage and wastage with the assistance of the right choice at the correct time. Thus, an organization can operate at a minimum cost. Selecting the Best Alternative: Any issue has numerous solutions. Decision making is imperative to choose the best option among different choices by investigating them one by one utilizing different money related, measurable, and accounting tools/strategy. Evaluation of the Managerial Performance: Decision making isn't just critical to choose the best option yet in addition basic for assessing the execution of a manager. The quality/achievement of the administrator to a great extent relies on the quantity of right choice that he/she can take for hierarchical achievement. Subsequently, decision making is imperative to pass judgment on the execution of the top dimension of the board. Indispensable Element: Decision making is an imperative component/part for the authoritative achievement on the grounds that without taking the correct choice at the perfect time, nothing can be executed according to the arrangement. Important function: Decision making is an inescapable capacity of directors went for accomplishing hierarchical objectives. Choices are to be taken in every single administrative capacity, for example, arranging, sorting out, rousing, coordinating and controlling and in every single practical region, for example, generation, promoting, money, staff, and innovative work. It shows that decision making is spread over numerous regions of the association. Each decision making process creates the last decision. Numerous issues may emerge in an association while leading normal hierarchical exercises. In this way, the issues must be explained for the smooth task of authoritative exercises. It is trusted that administration without a choice is a man without a spine. Consequently, decision making is a critical thinking approach by picking a particular game-plan among different choices. Indeed, these seven points mentioned early are framing an overall view of its importance. Anyway the thought process that most managers adopt is on the concept that an accelerated decision making will help them arrive at decisions faster by defining result oriented objectives, choosing the most effective tactics, assigning the right metrics for success, taking calculated risk, and have the right people in place doing the right things. The reality is, the process has to follow a general pattern of environment assessment based on analysis and mere interpretation, giving all the inputs required for framing a proper strategy, according to the situation. Hence, forecasting are less likely to get the real results of the action thereof, it only helps controlling any upcoming difficulty. So decision making is always subject to risk and uncertainty, which have to be taking as a serious matter, with all required studies. Else accelerating the process of decision making will get us only on the 10% of the iceberg, and yet without proper assessment we are more likely to get the business off-track. Nevertheless the dynamic change we are facing nowadays, has made literally mandatory for business to remain agile, responsive and flexible to get systematically on the trend. That's why somehow decision-making has to be taken within a short span of time, to avoid getting overwhelmed by the situation or the change. Thus, accelerated decision making will enable you to land at choices quicker by characterizing result situated destinations, picking the best strategies, doling out the correct measurements for progress, going for broke, and have the opportune individuals set up doing the correct things.Regardless of which approach a business head or chief uses, perceiving that at times, a choice should be made based on a not exactly perfect measure of money-saving advantage investigations, examine, due persistence, and hazard examination, building up an organized accelerated decision making process in which the alternate routes taken are recognized ahead of time and the association along these lines comprehends what precisely is put in danger by the utilization of an accelerated decision-making process, can be useful and beneficial. Taking the example of Galaxy Fold which was announced to bring disruption in the modern era, and the market of mobile phone. They couldn't even hold a week in influencer's hands due to technical problems (the foldable screen). They were so inpatient to get it on the market, that they have been too much ambitious on the price (2000 $), and omit the importance of notice and user guide for a very new type of mobile device. All these errors cost them, as they were forced to take back all devices that has been given to influencers and testers. And they have had to postponed the global release date, stating that the Galaxy Fold isn't ready to take up the market. In a nutshell, business leaders have a great deal to think about when making decisions: execution investigation and other information rolling in from a huge number of sources, asset, and budget run rates, and substantially more. The faster a leader can achieve the best choices dependent on the best intel, the quicker groups can do systems, give competitive value, and satisfy clients.