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Lillian P.
Tutor for Six Years: Lover of Languages
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French
TutorMe
Question:

I am having a hard time remembering all of the Être verbs that use être as an auxiliary verb in the past tense.

Lillian P.
Answer:

Dr Mrs. Vandertramp is a great mnemonic device, or memory device to help you remember all of the être verbs. Each letter stands for a verb that uses être as its auxiliary verb. D R - M R S. - V A N D E R T R A M P Devenir (to become) past participle: devenu Revenir (to come back) past participle: revenu Monter (to climb) past participle: monté Rester (to stay) past participle: resté Sortir (to leave) past participle: sorti Passer (to pass) past participle: passé Venir (to come) past participle: venu Aller (to go) past participle: allé Naître (to be born) past participle: né Descendre (to descend) past participle: descendu Entrer (to enter) past participle: entré Rentrer (to re-enter) past participle: rentré Tomber (to fall) past participle: tombé Retourner (to turn around) past participle: retourné Arriver (to arrive / to come) past participle: arrivé Mourir (to die) past participle: mort Partir (to leave) past participle: parti

Writing
TutorMe
Question:

What is a gerund? I don't understand, is it a verb or a noun?

Lillian P.
Answer:

To begin, gerunds function as nouns. Therefore you will be using gerunds as subjects, subject complements, direct objects, indirect objects, and objects of prepositions. These are examples of gerunds: Molly was eleven, swimming has been her passion. Swimming = subject of the verb has been. Molly's first love is swimming. Swimming = subject complement of the verb is. Molly loves swimming more than shopping with her friends. Swimming = direct object of the verb loves. Molly gives swimming all of her energy and time. Swimming = indirect object of the verb gives. When Molly wore goggles to class, everyone knew she was devoted to swimming. Swimming = object of the preposition to.

Dance
TutorMe
Question:

What is the Laban Movement Analysis (LMA) method and how is it used when studying or watching dance?

Lillian P.
Answer:

Laban Movement Analysis (LMA) is a technique by Rudolph Laban that was developed to create a common language of movement. It helps the viewers or participants to describe, visualize, interpret, and document movement quality and technique. LMA includes four categories: body, effort, shape, and space. Body - describes which body pats are moving, their initiation points, sequences, patterns, and connections between parts. Effort - also known as dynamics, is a system for understanding the more subtle characteristics about the way a movement is done with regard to inner intention. Effort is then arranged into four different subcategories : Space (direct / indirect) , Time ( fast / slow), Weight ( heavy / light), Flow (bound / free). For example, when you grab a glass of water is is direct, slow, light, and free. In contrast the same movement of extending the arm to punch is direct, fast, heavy, and bound. Shape- describe static shapes that the body takes and the growing and shrinking of the the shapes that they take in the internal kinesphere, Shape- describes the area that the body is moving within, the directions or points in space that the mover is using, and where the movement is being done, in terms of emphasis of directions.

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