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Jacob R.
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US Government and Politics
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Question:

The United States has a unique distribution of power known as federalism. This distribution of power provides each level of government with some level of autonomy. In the modern US Government is the federalism we see in practice more marble cake (collaborative/mixed) or layer-cake federalism (defined powers for federal and state governments.

Jacob R.
Answer:

Arguably the Federalism we see in the US today is more marble cake, than layer-cake federalism. This is largely a legacy of the expanded role the Federal government has taken in people's lives since the New Deal in the late 1930s/early 1940s. The Federal government has taken on massive projects since the New Deal ranging from the expansion of social welfare programs to the construction of a national interstate highway system under President Eisenhower. A good example of marble cake federalism today is the Medicaid program. Medicaid and CHIP (the Children Health Insurance Program) provide roughly 70 million low income and disabled Americans with health care coverage today. The program is jointly administrated and funded by the Federal government and the states. Each state has it's own Medicaid program with its own eligibility guidelines, but the Federal government still places a role in creating policies for the program and providing some of the funding required for the program. This is a great example of how the powers of each level of government are often not clearly defined and this results in powers being mixed between levels.

Political Science
TutorMe
Question:

What are the differences between parliamentary and presidential forms of government?

Jacob R.
Answer:

The key difference between Parliamentary and Presidental systems is that Parliamentary systems have dual executives, while {residential systems have a single executive, the President. In Parliamentay system the legislative and executive body of government are closely related, while the judiciary is independent of the other two bodies of government. In a Presidential system, the legislative, executive and judiciary body of the government are independent of each other. In Parliamentary systems, powers are concentrated, in Presidental systems, they are purposely divided so that no one branch has too much power. In Parliamentary systems, the tenure of the head of government is not fixed, while in Presidental systems Presidents serve fixed terms and often are limited in the number of terms for which they are allowed to serve.

US History
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Question:

Most presidential historians would describe President Andrew Jackson's legacy as mixed. Discuss Jacksonian Democracy and it's influence on American politics today.

Jacob R.
Answer:

Jacksonian democracy was a 19th-century political philosophy in the United States which was promoted by both President Jackson and his supporters beginning in the 1830s. Jackson wanted to fundamentally reshape politics by making government more democratic by expanding the right to vote to most white men over the age of 21 and restructure federal institutions to increase the power of the executive branch. Jackson emphasized that election should occur by the "common man" and that one should not be required to own property in order to vote. In order to fulfill his promise to expand the power of the citizen in government Jackson adopted policies including ending the bank of the United States, expanding westward, and removing American Indians from the Southeast. Jacksonian Democracy has more influence that one might think on American politics today. The right to vote is for those with and without property, the executive branch remains strong, and the political party system is alive and well. One of Jackson's greatest legacies may, in fact, be that his partisanship and rivalry with the whigs solidified the two-party system into American politics forever.

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