Tutor profile: Yuto K.
Subject: Organic Chemistry
Describe the differences between electrophiles and nucleophiles in a reaction. Provide 2 examples of reactions that show nucleophiles and electrophiles interacting.
Electrophiles are electron deficient, whereas nucleophiles are electron rich species. Nucleophiles often conduct a nucleophilic attack on to electrophiles in reaction processes. Two examples of this include Michael addition reactions and the Mannich reaction.
Describe the different applications and functions of catalysts in regards to reaction processes.
Catalysts lower the activation energy of reactions, provides an alternate reaction pathway, and increases the rate of the reaction.
ATP is an essential high-energy compound used to couple many known biochemical reactions. Explain why the coupling of different reactions is an essential thermodynamic process to facilitate biochemical processes.
Many reactions that constitute metabolism are unfavorable reactions, or reactions that have a positive delta G value. Therefore, thermodynamically unfavorable reactions are coupled with thermodynamically favorable reactions that have a negative delta G value. The coupling process produces a thermodynamically favorable reaction. The hydrolysis of ATP is a thermodynamically favorable reaction.
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