Where is keratinized stratified squamous epithelium located?
Keratinized stratified squamous epithelium is located in the epidermis.
A. Phosphorylation cascades are caused by what type of enzyme? B. What are phosphorylation cascades used for?
A. Protein Kinases B. Signal amplification in signal transduction pathways in the cell.
Animals (including humans) can develop cancer if a cell in their body accumulates mutations in their DNA. A particularly vulnerable time for the DNA is during the S phase of the cell cycle when the cell is replicating it's genome. What is a mechanism that the cell utilizes during replication to prevent mutations that can lead to cancer?
The proofreading function of DNA Polymerase prevents mutation during DNA replication. The proofreading function of DNA Polymerase makes the mutation rate during DNA replication as low as 1 in 1 billion base pairs. For a comparison, Bacterial DNA Polymerase does not have a proofreading function, and have a mutation rate 10,000 times higher than that of animal cells.