Tutor profile: Michelle L.
What is a major difference between the dystopian worlds featured in "Brave New World" by Aldous Huxley and "1984" by George Orwell?
One of the most significant differences between the two dystopian worlds involves the role of government . Orwell implies that people must be kept in line by an overwhelming government presence, as evidenced by all the references to "Big Brother" watching the protagonists of "1984." This government entity dictates their actions in order for the current administration to keep its power. The actions of the oppressed people in Orwell's book implies that there is a desire to break free from the highly regimented routine. Huxley, its seems, would view this as a weakness. In "Brave New World," the characters are largely allowed the right to choose their daily actions, and their illusion of freedom is exactly what keeps them trapped and prevents them from becoming aware of the governmental manipulation of the populous. Aldous Huxley himself was even quoted as saying, "It is possible to make people contented with their servitude. You can provide them with endless amounts of distraction and propaganda."
Describe a few of the attributes that make apoptosis a unique cellular process.
Apoptosis, or programmed cell death, is one of the most unique biochemical pathways when it comes to cellular signalling. Currently, it is the focus of numerous research studies, primarily surrounding cancer. Apoptosis is a complicated process, but it can be triggered by internal or external signals (intrinsic pathways vs. extrinsic pathway), which is quite unique. If triggered internally, the process begins at the mitochondria. There is much debate surrounding how the process is started, but once it begins, many different cellular proteins (primarily caspases to degrade the cell and flippases to "flip" the phosphatidyl serine to the surface of the cell) are triggered in a signalling cascade. In a similar way, one cell can stimulate the apoptosis of another by sending cytokines to interact with the TNF receptor on the cell surface, usually resulting in further interactions with Fas ligands and their derivatives that lead to the death of the cell. Regardless of the method, a few things remain consistent. The first is that the phosphatidyl serine that usually resides on the inside of the lipid bilayer/cell membrane is flipped to the outside of the cell. This is key in laboratory studies because apoptosis is commonly measured by introducing binding agents that interact with phosphatidyl serine (such as Annexin V) and determining the amount of interaction in a sample. This interaction only occurs if phosphatidyl serine is found on the surface. Another commonality is that the cell undergoes highly regulated cell death. Unlike necrosis commonly seen in disease or trauma, apoptotic cells die without spilling their contents into the surrounding environment or affecting nearby cells. It is an essential process for both growth and development, but may also have future in curing currently incurable diseases.
Explain the major periodic trends and their significance.
The three major periodic trends are ionization energy, electronegativity, and atomic radius. As one moves from left to right across the periodic table, the ionization energy and electronegativity increases while the atomic radius decreases. As one moves from the top of the table to the bottom, the opposite is true: ionization energy and electronegativity decreases while the atomic radius increases. Although this may seem confusing at first, it actually makes sense when you break it down. Electronegativity is the tendency of an atom to attract electrons, whereas ionization energy is the energy required to remove an electron from an atom of a certain element. The greater the affinity for electrons, the tighter the atom holds onto those electrons, so the more energy is required to remove one. Atoms with greater electronegativities also have greater ionization energies, so their trends align on the periodic table. This also explains why atomic radius is the opposite. The smaller the radius, the closer the electrons are to the nucleus, and the harder they are for other atoms to "steal." This means that as electronegativity and ionization energy increases, atomic size must be decreasing since the electrons are drawing closer to the center.
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