Tutor profile: John K.
The US founding fathers were inspired by the English philosopher John Locke and and the French philosopher Montesquieu. What are the two core ideas that the founding fathers gained from these thinkers and employed in their writing on the US constitution?
From John Locke the founding fathers gathered the idea that government is a social contract. Social contract theory states that the citizens agree to relinquish some of their freedoms that they otherwise would have in a state of nature in exchange for security provided by a government. This exists as a contract between the government and the consent of the governed that if infringed upon can be terminated. From Montesquieu, the founding fathers employed the idea of separation of powers. Montesquieu posited that the best way to regulate a government is by dividing the powers of offices into separate branches. The founding fathers took this idea to establish in the US three main branches: the executive, legislative, and judicial branches.
Subject: International Relations
Describe one or two main features of each of the three core theoretical approaches of international relations: Realism, Liberalism, and Constructivism.
Realism positions self-interested states as the main actors in international relations. Realism focuses on power-politics, resource capabilities, and rational action to understand state action. Liberalism is more interested in situations in which states cooperate to achieve common ends. Liberalism focuses more on international institutions, and contests the notion of the state-centric model proposed by Realists. Constructivism, on the other hand, understands international relations through the lens of how our common social identities and interests relate to material capabilities and shape our understanding of reality.
Subject: World History
Throughout history, the area spanning from the Mediterranean in the West to the Himalayan Mountains in the East has been home to the rise and fall of numerous civilizations. Name three important civilizations that have existed in this region that have left a cultural and historical legacy which can be observed today.
Firstly, the Mesopotamian Civilizations such as Sumeria and Babylonia were the first such civilizations to have complex forms of writing, creating the Epic of Gilgamesh. The ruins of their cities, such as Palmyra in Syria, exists today. Secondly, the conquests of the Roman Empire significantly influenced the development of religion in the region. Christianity emerged as a byproduct of instability and turmoil related to Roman occupation in the Eastern Mediterranean. Lastly, the Muslim conquests, led first by Muhammad and which later became the Ummayyad Caliphate, spread the second largest religion in the world from the coast of North West Africa, deep into Central Asia, and South East to the Islands of Indonesia.
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