Tutor profile: Prianka H.
Please translate "My head is hurting" to Bengali
Amar maatha batha korche.
Subject: Gender Studies
Develop an essay outlining the differences between the additive and intersectional model
Stratification and inequities are present around the globe in most societies, where the cause of these hierarchies are often attributed to race, class, and/or gender. Race, class, and gender are not only all social constructs used to identify and perpetuate differences in society, but also essential to an individual’s identity and cannot be dissociated from the subjective experience. While many scholars are interested in studying the effects of these components of an individual’s identity, there are two main frameworks used to understand how these characteristics play a role in inequality and power, the additive and intersectional models. The multiple facets of identity are identified, manipulated, and used in order to maintain hegemonic power (Bhattacharyya et al. 2002) that has existed since the practices of Colonialism and Imperialism first began. This dominant power structure has been maintained through the use of policies by the government to keep different groups in subservient social positions with a white, patriarchal foundation. Looking at the theoretical frameworks used to understand inequality and power in society, the additive model is more traditional, but too simple to understand the causes of societal stratification. The additive approach looks at race, class, and gender as components that can be be studied individually (Andersen & Collins 1992). This allows for the opportunity for different components to be compared to one another, and creates a space for the “oppression olympics” (Sadeghi 2018); this is when individuals are able to discuss who is in a worse position in society, rather than working together to force change. This framework looks at diversity and multiculturalism, but does acknowledge the systems of power and invisible privileges provided to dominant groups. While accepting the diversity in experience, the additive model does not analyze the stratification in society based on race, class and gender (Andersen & Collins 1992). While the additive model tends to think comparatively, the intersectional approach thinks relationally (Sadeghi 2018). The intersectional model places an emphasis on the role of social structures and systemic stratification, such as with racism. Class and gender only further the marginalization of an individual, indicating that these components cannot be studied separately and compared with one another. This model acknowledges the importance of all three components of identity, which is termed as the matrix of domination. The matrix of domination is defined as a “system of simultaneous, interrelated social relationships” (Andersen & Collins 1992), which indicates that race, class, and gender are weaved tightly together. By studying the relationship between these components, scholars are able to see how race, class, and gender manifest themselves differently. Additionally, the intersectional model looks at socio-historical context of how stratification was established and maintained, both on a domestic and global scale (Andersen & Collins 1992). The importance of this model is that race, class, and gender do not exist isolated from one another, but rather depend, build upon, and complicate each other.
78 runners finished the 2008 Olympic Men’s Marathon. The averaging finishing time was 141 minutes, and the standard deviation of finishing times was 7.4 minutes. If we were to take random samples of 10 men finishing the 2008 Olympic marathon, what would the standard error of the mean be?
SE = sigma/square root (n) = 7.4/square root (10) = 2.3
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