Tutor profile: Kathryn F.
What is the difference between "le" and "lo" in Spanish?
Both "le" and "lo" are object pronouns in Spanish. That is, both of them are markers for a noun that receives some part of the action of a Spanish verb. "Lo" is a direct object (so whatever action the verb does happens directly to it) and "le" is an indirect object (so whatever action the verb is doing to the direct object transmits through to it, typically by the indirect object actually receiving the direct object). In caps is an example of a direct object in English: "I give the BOOK." Giving (the verb) happened to the book (the object). Now, an example of what happens when we replace an actual direct object noun with a direct object pronoun: "I give IT." In Spanish, that direct object pronoun would be the word "lo." For an example of an indirect object noun, "I give AMY the book." An indirect object pronoun would simply replace the proper name with "I give HER the book." In Spanish, that indirect object pronoun would be "le."
Do any animals speak languages?
The short answer is that we do not think so. Languages by definition are infinite and creative; their speakers have the ability to grasp both entirely new sentences that they have never heard and to create sentences that have never been created before. They even have the ability to figure out the meaning of new and nonsense words that they have never heard before when based on a familiar root. (For example, you may never have heard the non-word "prettify", but because you know the root "pretty", you know what I mean by it.) Animal communicative systems are complex in some ways but particular species seem to communicate exclusively in a pre-determined sequence of sound/movement about pre-determined things (such as bees' dances about food sources or bird songs about mating, danger, etc.). These animals follow the pattern they've learned and typically are not creative in the way that we expect with true language. Some animals do learn new sounds (like parrots) but don't seem to connect them at all to meaning or re-combine them in creative ways.
Subject: English as a Second Language
Why do English questions have such a different word order from affirmative English sentences?
In English, questions are formed by doing two things: first, the speaker must put the applicable question-word in the first position of the sentence, and second, the speaker must move the auxiliary verb into the second position of the sentence. Thus, "English questions do have such a different word order from affirmative English sentences" becomes "WHY DO English questions have such a different word order," etc.
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