Tutor profile: Emma D.
What is the difference between a macroview of society and a microview?
A macroview of society is when you examine and evaluate the very large aspects of society. Some examples of these "large aspects" would be culture, institutions, and inequality. A microview is when you look at society on a more individual level. This view takes into account the way individuals interact with one another.
Name the four types of operant conditioning and explain how they differ from one another. Give an example of each.
The four types of operant conditioning are positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement, positive punishment, and negative punishment. Reinforcement is the encouragement of an action to be repeated where punishment is intended to reduce or completely stop an action. The difference between whether the conditioning is positive or negative relies on whether or not there is something being given or taken away in order to affect whether or not the behavior will be likely to happen again. So, positive reinforcement is when something is being given in order to encourage a behavior to be done again. This would be like giving a child candy when they receive a good grade on a test. The candy is being given in order to encourage them to do well on tests in the future, which would be repeating the behavior. An example of positive punishment would be yelling at a child when they do something wrong. You are "adding" something (yelling) which will discourage them from doing the behavior again. Negative reinforcement is when something is taken away from a situation in order to encourage a behavior to be done again. An example of this would be your mom nagging at you to clean your room. Once you clean your room, the nagging will stop (this is the removal) and you will be motivated to clean your room again because the nagging going away was a good thing. Finally, there is negative punishment. Negative punishment is when you take something away in order to decrease the likelihood of a behavior to be repeated. An example of this would be taking away the toy of a child who is misbehaving. The removal of the toy will decrease the motivation of the child to misbehave again.
Subject: Criminal Justice
What was the significance of the Marbury v. Madison (1803) case in terms of a long-lasting effect on the court system?
The Marbury v. Madison (1803) case had a very important impact because it granted the power of Judicial Review. More specifically, it granted the power of judicial review for lower court decisions and statutes. So, this gives us the power to protect citizens from a big government.
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