Explain the basic premise of Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs.
Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs states that individuals, in order to achieve self actualization, must first meet (in order, beginning with most fundamental) physiological needs, safety needs, belongingness needs, and esteem needs.
What is the basic premise of the theory of Social Constructionism?
The theory of Social Constructionism posits that people's realities are shaped by social constructs (e.g. gender, race). The collective creation of social constructs affects the ways in which groups of people interact with those they perceive as the similar or different from themselves.
Explain the difference between positive and negative reinforcement.
While positive and negative reinforcement are both facets of classical conditioning, positive reinforcement aims to increase the desired behavior by presenting a stimulus while negative reinforcement increases the desired behavior by removing an undesirable stimulus. Negative reinforcement is often confused with the concept of punishment, but the key difference is that punishment is intended to decrease undesirable behavior rather than increase desirable behavior.