Tutor profile: Megan O.
Subject: Health and Medicine
What is primary prevention?
American Healthcare currently focuses on tertiary prevention, but recent efforts have focused on primary prevention. Primary prevention is the effort to provide the public with plans to prevent any onset of disease or illness. This is usually in the form of education or immunizations. For example, a current epidemic is childhood obesity. Primary prevention for childhood obesity includes nutritional education for parents and children along with daily exercise. Secondary prevention for childhood obesity includes screenings like measuring height and weight. Tertiary prevention for childhood obesity includes preventing complications once the child is obese. This can include placing a child on a diet to prevent diabetes. By focusing on primary prevention, health care providers can lessen of the burden of care in hospitals and improve quality of life.
Why do people with heart failure need to be on fluid restriction?
With heart failure, you have two typical causes: poor ventricular contraction and/or increased resistance. With either cause, this typically leads to a back-up of blood to different areas of the body. With left sided HF, this blood backs up into the lungs and has pulmonic effects. With right sided HF, this blood backs up to the rest of the body and has systemic effects. When a person with HF adds more fluid to this already backed up system, they can cause fluid overload, which causes the heart to work harder. When the heart works harder, it requires more oxygen. If there is a problem with blood flow to the lungs or to the tissue, this puts the heart at risk for infarction. By maintaining a fluid restriction, it allows other types of therapy (i.e. medications), to remove fluid to assist the heart.
How does blood move through the heart?
Deoxygenated blood enters the heart from the superior and inferior vena cava and moves into the right atrium. Once blood fills the atrium, the tricuspid valve opens and blood flows into the right ventricle. After this ventricle fills, the pulmonic valve opens and blood move into the pulmonary arteries. This brings the blood to the lungs where gas exchange occurs. Carbon dioxide from the blood moves into the alveloi as oxygen moves into the blood. Newly oxygenated blood is carried to the left side of the heart through the pulmonary veins. The blood enters the left atrium. Once this atrium fills, the mitral valve opens and the blood flows into the left ventricle. The left ventricle is the largest chamber of the heart and once it has filled, the aortic valve opens and sends oxygenated blood into the aorta to be distributed to the rest of the body.
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