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Tutor profile: Marsha T.

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Marsha T.
Bioethicist, Researcher, educator
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Questions

Subject: Health and Medicine

TutorMe
Question:

What are the differences between a pandemic, an epidemic and an outbreak?

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Marsha T.
Answer:

Pandemic, epidemic and outbreaks have a few things in common as they involve the sudden occurrence of something unwelcome. In the case of a pandemic, the unwelcome event is the worldwide spread of a new disease. An epidemic can refer to either disease or other welcome occurrences such as war or illegal drug trades. It also refers to a sudden occurrence within a community as opposed to something happening worldwide. An outbreak is more synonymous with epidemic but is also used to describe the initial event. an outbreak may eventually lead to an epidemic if the event spreads throughout a community or pandemic if it starts spreading worldwide.

Subject: Writing

TutorMe
Question:

What are the hallmarks of a strong thesis statement?

Inactive
Marsha T.
Answer:

A strong thesis statement is written in the third person, contains the writer's opinion and is debatable. It is important that the thesis statement be narrow enough in focus to make the writer's argument as strong as possible. The thesis statement should also include 2 to 3 points that will be argued to support the writer's position during the essay.

Subject: Biomedical Science

TutorMe
Question:

Why has it been so difficult to develop a vaccine to HIV?

Inactive
Marsha T.
Answer:

In a normal immune response, macrophages detect and process foreign biological agents such as viruses and bacteria and present them to T cells as antigens. T cells that have been presented with antigen differentiate into T helper cells. T helper cells trigger B cells to undergo clonal expansion to produce large amounts of antigen specific antibodies. Antibodies help to destroy the foreign substance invading the body. At the same time, some T helper cells differentiate into T killer cells which directly kill all infected cells. Vaccines work by mimicking a normal immune response. The body is presented with just enough biological agent to elicit an immune response but not enough to make you sick. It has been difficult to develop vaccines to HIV because HIV virus directly target T helper cells, which as explained above, is critical in developing the primary immune response. Since the T helper cells are being destroyed by the virus, the body is never able to produce enough antibody producing B cells or killer T cells to rid the body of the infection.

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