Tutor profile: Maaz I.
Subject: Organic Chemistry
Why are pi bonds weaker than sigma bonds?
Sigma bonds are formed by DIRECT orbital overlap. Pi bonds are formed by PARALLEL orbital overlap. The bond in sigma bonds is formed by two orbitals of adjacent atoms directly touching while the bond in pi bonds is formed by the two orbitals of adjacent atoms connecting without overlapping. Think of it like sigma bonds being like your two hands interlocking while pi bonds are like your two hands being held across from each other. Which one would have the least space between non-touching parts? The sigma bonds have direct touching and pi bonds have no touching! This is why pi bonds are weaker.
Subject: College Admissions
How do I make my college application essay stand out?
Making your essay stand out is all about making yourself stand out. The essay is meaningless if it doesn't share something valuable about you, your experiences, and how they relate to the school you're applying to. Admissions offices receive far more applications than they can accept and so you need to make your essay stand out by telling your story in as genuine and thought provoking way as possible. Here are a few tips to crafting that essay: 1.) Make a list of experiences that made you want to further your education in a particular area 2.) Begin writing in response to the prompt for your essay. If it is school-specific do some research about the school and what it values (a visit would help you with this or you can use google to find out more about what your school of interest values and tweak your essay to that style while staying true to what you want to do). If it isn't school-specific work on really weaving the prompt into the essay. A good way of doing this is to open up your essay with a picture for the reader to see and conclude the essay with a call to action of sorts (where you say what you want to do and how it ties into college) 3.) Begin reviewing your work and really think about how you can cut down and polish your draft so that admissions officers will find your essay to be the best!
How does fermentation relate to cellular respiration in eukaryotes?
Cellular respiration is the process by which eukaryotes derive energy in the form of ATP (Abbreviated for the molecule Adenosine Tri-Phosphate). The process is one that has glucose (sugar commonly found in the foods we eat) broken down into smaller bits and pieces until ATP can be generated by each of the 5 steps (Glycolysis, Pyruvate Processing, Citric Acid/Krebs Cycle, Electron Transport Chain, & Oxidative Phosphorylation). Each of these steps has reactants (go into the reaction) and products (formed by the end of the reaction). The key to remember is that fermentation is used by eukaryotes ONLY as a last resort when there isn't enough oxygen to facilitate the process of full blown cellular respiration. Think about when you get sore after working out. Your body produces lactic acid (a product of fermentation) which makes you feel sore in your muscles. Your muscles needed energy but there wasn't enough oxygen to get it from cellular respiration. So you needed it but couldn't go through all of cellular respiration. You had to get it somehow. Your body went through the first stage of cellular respiration (glycolysis) and produced ATP through that means and just repeated the process. The reason for this is because you 1.) didn't have enough oxygen within your cells to go through all of cellular respiration and 2.) your muscles needed ATP in a fast way to work out. Eukaryotes will always use fermentation to acquire ATP if they cannot perform cellular respiration; it is why we are facultative anaerobes (can use both aerobic cellular respiration and anaerobic fermentation).
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