Please explain the difference between incidence and prevalence.
Both incidence and prevalence refer to the number of people with a medical condition. Incidence refers to the number of people newly diagnosed (i.e., went from not having a condition to having one) with a condition at a certain period of time. For example, how many people were newly diagnosed with diabetes during the month of February? Prevalence refers to the total number of people living with a condition at a certain point in time. So, this includes people who have had diabetes for 10 years and the people who were diagnosed yesterday. Prevalence will be a larger number than incidence because there should be more people living with a condition than just being diagnosed.
How can an exercise prescription be used by healthcare providers to help a patient lower their blood glucose (sugar) levels and improve health?
When someone has diabetes, their body either does not make insulin at all (type 1) or cannot use the insulin it is making (type 2). Both situations result in elevated blood glucose levels, which can lead to all kinds of health consequences that include nerve and kidney damage and increased risk of heart disease. When we start an exercise bout, catecholamines (epinephrine and norepinephrine) are released, which contribute to the resulting elevated heart rate and blood pressure observed during exercise. In addition, epinephrine stimulates glycogenolysis, the creation of glucose (i.e. sugar) in the liver and active muscles. Because our working muscles require additional glucose to do the work we’re asked of it, the GLUT-4 receptors in the muscle tissue are activated during exercise by increased muscle contractions to allow for additional glucose to enter the muscle cells and be metabolized for energy. The fantastic thing about exercise is that it has an insulin-like effect on blood sugar. That is, when muscle contracts during exercise, those muscle contractions help to pull sugar out of the blood and into the muscle (via the GLUT-4 receptors) where it is broken down and used for energy. Diabetics who take insulin to control their blood glucose, are instructed to not inject insulin into working muscle when they are going to be exercising to prevent possible hypoglycemic conditions from occurring. Overtime, with training, diabetics become more sensitive to insulin, and therefore will observe that their blood glucose trends will move in a healthier direction, possibly resulting in decreased medication usage.
Can you improve these sentences? 1. Overall, a key limitation the evidence on this therapy is that it is based primarily on uncontrolled, unblinded studies. 2. The majority of study participants were male, but mean age was late thirties to early forties and prevalence of depression, anxiety, pain, and other medical comorbidities were unclear.
1. “Overall, a key limitation the evidence on this therapy is that it is based primarily on uncontrolled, unblinded studies.” reads awkwardly. There needs to be a preposition between “limitation” and “the”. For example, the sentence might read (capitals for emphasis), “Overall, a key limitation OF the evidence on this therapy is that it is based primarily on uncontrolled, unblinded studies.” Remember, prepositions connect sentences together; they are usually found between nouns or pronouns. In this case, "of" is preposition that was missing and the connector between limitation and evidence. 2. The majority of study participants were male, but mean age was late thirties to early forties and prevalence of depression, anxiety, pain, and other medical comorbidities were unclear.” In this sentence, "prevalence" is singular and "were" is plural; since “unclear” refers to prevalence and not the listing of comorbidities that follows prevalence in the sentence, the singular, was, should be used instead.