Tutor profile: Sarah N.
How do I write a reference for a webpage that has no date using APA style?
Webpages can be tricky to cite and reference. As a general rule, you should provide as much information as possible. When there is no date given by a webpage, you should indicate by writing n.d.. For example: Author 1., & Author 2.(n.d.). Title of webpage. Retrieved from: http://
Can you explain the difference between positive and negative reinforcement?
Of course! I think the most confusing aspect of understanding operant conditioning is that we typically think of 'positive' meaning 'good' and 'negative' meaning 'bad'. However, in this context, 'positive' means 'giving something' and 'negative' means 'taking something away'. Therefore, when we are trying to positively reinforce a behavior, we want to GIVE someone a pleasant reward that will ensure they will behave that way again in the future. For example, we GIVE a child praise when they do their chores ("very good!") so that they will do their chores again in the future. When we are trying to negatively reinforce a behavior, we TAKE something unpleasant away to ensure that they will behave that way again in the future. For example, a child's teacher says that if everyone behaves during a certain class activity, he/she will TAKE away the homework assignment for that night.
When would I perform a between-subjects ANOVA?
Great question! You would perform a between-subjects ANOVA if you have a categorical independent variable (IV) with three or more levels, a quantitative dependent variable (DV) AND you have randomly assigned each participant in your study to take part in ONLY ONE level of your IV. For example: Imagine that you are interested in whether listening to classical music while you study can lead to better test scores than listening to rock music or no music at all, so you randomly assign 50 people to listen to classical music while they study, 50 people to listen to rock music while they study and 50 people to listen to no music while they study. Then you give every participant a test on the material they have been studying. Your independent variable (IV), type of music, has three levels, your dependent variable (DV), test score, is quantitative AND each participant takes part in only ONE level of the IV; either they listen to classical music OR rock music OR no music at all.
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