Tutor profile: Yaroslava K.
What linguistic evidence is their of French influence on the English language?
In 1066 AD William of Normandy won the Battle of Hastings and became the ruler of England. This victory sparked the migration of Norman nobles to England in order to establish and consolidate their rule. It was during this time that words like "mutton", "beef" and "pork" came to English. Have you ever wondered why we have different words for the animal and its meat, as used for cooking? This is because animal names come from Old English, while the name of meat comes from Norman (Old French): "mouton" became "mutton", "boef" became "beef", "porc" became "pork". The Norman nobles did not have to deal with animal husbandry, but they did eat a lot of meat, while the Anglo-Saxons were the lower class people who raised cattle, but could not afford to eat it.
Subject: European History
The Viking Age lasted from 793 to 1066 AD and touched all of Europe in one way or another. Please briefly describe some of the influences that Norsemen had on the European continent.
The Vikings were driven by the need to expand, as well as, the desire to get as much gold for themselves. Viking expansion developed in multiple directions- Danish Vikings nearly conquered the whole of England, only failing to subjugate Northumbria; Swedish Vikings moved East, searching for a way to the riches of Constantinople and became the warrior aristocracy and rulers of Ancient Russia (the Rurikid dynasty); Viking leader Rollo became the first Duke of Normandy in 911, and thus gained a foothold for Vikings in northern France. The fierce Norsemen facilitated trade, changed European politics with their constant looting and raiding (European rulers had to raise larger armies, rethink and perfect their defenses), dabbled in governing and improved communication systems (think Harald Bluetooth).
Although J.R.R. Tolkien's Middle-earth is a fictional universe, it draws heavily on Earth's history. What influences shaped Tolkien's work, especially the creation of the peoples of Rohan and Gondor?
J.R.R. Tolkien was a well-known medievalist, who lectured at Oxford University. He knew Old English and translated Old English poetry, including "Beowulf" and "The Battle of Maldon". The Germanic heroic spirit demonstrated in these poems can be found in the people of Rohan, as well as select characters of Gondor. For example, Eomer fights for glory and lusts for battle. Similarly, Boromir desires to win honor for Minas Tirith, and himself; he displays military prowess throughout the first two books, and his death is brave and glorious, though tragic. On the other hand, Aragorn and Faramir were clearly influenced by a later medieval tradition which deals with courtly love. Although they courageously defend their countries, their ultimate goal is to win the love of a lady.
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