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# Tutor profile: Jaden H.

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Teaching Major in Science
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## Questions

### Subject:Natural Sciences

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Question:

Compare and contrast mass and weight.

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Every object has a mass and a weight. However, these terms are not interchangeable. They describe two separate characteristics of an object. Mass describes the amount of matter an object has and thus the extent to which a particle or object resists a change in its direction or speed when a force is applied. The bigger or denser it is, the harder it will be to move. Mass is found by applying the following equation: Mass=weight/gravitational pull. This equation means that an object’s mass is constant at all points in the universe. Whereas weight is a force, and a force is a vector having both a magnitude, or mass, and a direction associated with it, such as the pull of gravity down towards earth. For example, Force=mass*acceleration. You can interchange these variables for Weight=mass*gravitational pull. An objects weight is dependent on where it is at in the universe. To recap these equations: Mass(kg)=weight(N)/gravitational pull(m/s2) Weight(N)=mass(kg)*gravitational pull(m/s2) For example: If a ball has a mass of 1kg on the earth, it will have a mass of 1 kg on the moon. However, it would weigh 1/6 as much on the moon as it would on the earth due to the difference in gravitation pull. (The moon has 1/6 the gravitational pull than the earth). Thus, weight is dependent on the gravitational pull of the location of the object, while mass is constant because as the gravity changes, so does its weight proportionally.

### Subject:Earth Science

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Question:

What causes the Earth's seasons?

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The Earth's seasons are caused by the tilt of the Earth's axis relative to the Sun. The more direct the rays of light, or solar energy, is aimed towards the Earth the hotter that area will be. Imagine shining a light on a spinning top as it slows down. As the top begins to wobble, different parts of the top are illuminated and casts a unique shadow effect. These illuminated areas are receiving the most direct rays of light, making them the brightest, over time the light energy will heat up the illuminated areas. The same is true with the Earth. If we imagine the Sun as a flashlight, then we can see that as the Earth wobbles back and forth on its axis, different parts are illuminated. Sometimes it’s the northern hemisphere and sometimes it is the southern hemisphere. Thus, when the northern hemisphere is in direct sunlight, it is summer in the north and winter in the south. On the other hand, when the southern hemisphere is in direct sunlight. It is summer in the south and winter in the north. This is one of the reasons why the equator experiences little to no seasonal change and has a constant climate.

### Subject:Biology

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Question:

Explain the process of cellular respiration using the term glucose, electron transport chain, pyruvate, ATP, ADP, NADH, NADH+, and electron gradient.

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Cellular respiration is the process of using the energy found in glucose to create ATP. Respiration occurs in three stages: glycolysis, the Krebs Cycle, and the electron transport chain. First glycolysis, a ten-step process that converts glucose into pyruvate. The energy released in this process is used to make a net gain of two ATP molecules and one NADH molecule. Stage two is called the Krebs Cycle. It is a stepwise cyclic process that oxidizes the pyruvate, formed during glycolysis, and creates CO2 and H20. This process produces enough energy to transform NADH to NADH+. The focus of the Krebs cycle is to provide energy to the electron transport chain by continually building NADH+ molecules so that they can ‘pass’ that energy in the form of electrons. The final stage is the electron transport chain. This is a series of stepwise progressions where electrons are ‘passed’ from electron donors to electron receptors via a REDOX reaction. This creates a proton gradient due to the transfer of protons (H+ ions) across the mitochondrial membrane. The protons are forced down their electron gradient through the ATP synthase. The ATP synthase then takes the collected energy from the release of the gradient to transform ADP to ATP. A total of 32 ATP molecules are produced in the electron transport chain and oxidative phosphorylation.

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