Tutor profile: Hassan M.
An 70 year old male is seen by his physician for recurrent episodes of dizziness. He states that over the past three weeks, he has become increasingly dizzy during his daily walk. The man is otherwise in exceptional health for his age. His physician notes a new systolic murmur heard best over the right upper sternal border over the second intercostal space. What is the most likely cause of this patient’s symptoms?
Calcification of the Aortic valve is a common finding in aging adults. Due to the calcification, the aortic valve becomes stenotic, reducing the ejection fraction of the left ventricle and therefore delivering less blood to vital organs such as the brain. The reduced blood flow to the brain is the cause for the dizziness the man is experiencing.
What amino acid becomes essential for patients diagnosed with phenylketonuria?
The answer is Tyrosine. Typically tyrosine is a nonessential amino acid due to the fact we can synthesize it from Phenylalanine. For patients diagnosed with PKU, They suffer from an inability to to break down Phenylalanine. In a healthy patient, Phenylalanine is converted to Tyrosine by an enzyme called "phenylalanine hydroxylase", in patients with PKU they lack this enzyme, therefore they have a build up of Phenylalanine and a deficiency in Tyrosine.
A 60 year old male presents to the physician to the physician with severe abdominal pain. The patient states he has been suffering from this pain for several months but recently has gotten much worse. After further testing, the physician informs the patient that he believes he is suffering from a posterior duodenal ulcer. Assuming the physician has made the correct diagnosis, what artery is most at risk for hemorrhage?
To answer the above question, you must take into account what artery runs near the duodenum. Recall, Gastroduodenal artery, a branch of the left gastric artery, runs posteriorly to the duodenum. If the diagnosis above is correct, an ulcer bleeding posteriorly would most likely hemorrhage from the gastroduodenal artery.
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