CH3CH2CHBrCH3 is a molecule that include a Bromine on a secondary carbon. If the nucleophile was NaCl with an acetone solvent, would the reaction primarily go in an SN1, SN2, E1, or E2 direction?
Since NaCl can be broken up into charged molecules, Na+ and Cl-, we can tell that it will be a strong nucleophile. This means that the reaction will primarily be an SN2 or E2 reaction. Usually, an E2 reaction is always favored over the SN2 unless the leaving group, in this case Bromine, is on a primary carbon. Since in this problem the Bromine is on a secondary carbon, the reaction will primarily go in an E2 direction.
Explain what phospholipids consists of and where they are located in a cell. In addition, what parts of the phospholipid are polar and what parts are non polar?
Phospholipids are made up of two fatty acid tails, which are attached to a glycerol 'head'. The glycerol is also attached to a phosphate group, which both make up the polar segment of the lipid. This can also be called the hydrophilic part as well. The fatty acid tails, made up of hydrocarbons, are the non polar or hydrophobic section. Phospholipids line up and arrange themselves into parallel lines, which make up the cell membrane.
In relation to molecular Genetics: Drosophila are a type of small flies. The pair of sex chromosomes that make up a female are XX, while the pair of chromosomes that make up a male is XY. Having at least one X chromosome is critical for survival. If a nondisjunction event occurs in the female, what would the genotypes of the progeny consists of?
By using a punnett square, we can determine the genotypes of the progeny. Remember, since a nondisjunction event occurs in meiosis for the female, her eggs may give 2 X chromosomes that will combine with one of the male's gamete to form a zygote, or her eggs may include no X chromosomes. The progeny genotypes include: XXX, XXY, XO, and YO. In this case, using "O" means that there is no other chromosome it is paired with. Usually, problems like these will also ask you to talk about the sex of the Drosophila, but since I have not given you enough information about the X and Y chromosome, it's difficult to infer. However, since I mentioned that at least 1 X chromosome is necessary for survival, we can infer that the individual with a genotype of YO will not survive.