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Tutor profile: Scott W.

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Scott W.
Doctorate in psychology, with 7+ years post graduate work teaching, training, coaching
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Questions

Subject: TOEFL

TutorMe
Question:

Apprenticeships have sometimes been compared to college education __________ they both allow for increased opportunity for higher paying jobs. despite because in regard to as a result of

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Scott W.
Answer:

The sentence should read, "Apprenticeships have sometimes been compared to college education because they both allow for increased opportunity for higher paying jobs." Therefore, you should choose B.

Subject: Writing

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Question:

What are the components of a persuasive essay?

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Scott W.
Answer:

First, before we even start writing, we start by clearly defining and stating our argument (thesis). Next, we write an introduction where we state our argument within the context of why it matters (what's the issue at hand?); this can involve stating surprising facts or implications. Next, we need to build a case for why our argument is correct, we do this by presenting evidence to support our argument. We'll typically, focus on one element of evidence at a time. Our case can also be strengthened by attending to and disarming evidence that might seem to not support our argument. For example, if we can think of reasons someone might not agree with our argument and then address why those reasons might not apply or might not be as impactful as they someone else might argue, this can bolster our case indirectly. Finally, and perhaps most importantly, we need to need to pull it all together. This involves summarizing the issue at hand, summarizing the reasons that support our argument, and restating our argument as a conclusion.

Subject: Psychology

TutorMe
Question:

According to behaviorism, what is the difference between negative reinforcement and negative punishment?

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Scott W.
Answer:

To best understand these concepts, it is helpful to look at the two different components and how they overlap. The first thing we are looking at is positive versus negative, and the second thing we are looking at is punishment versus reinforcement. When using behavior modification terms, positive means adding something new, and negative means taking something away. So in this case, both terms start with the word negative and so they both refer to taking something away. The second area is punishment versus reinforcement. The thing to know here is that this does not refer to pleasantness or aversiveness, instead this refers to the impact of the behavior modification strategy. So, if your intervention increases the likelihood that the target behavior will happen again, we call that reinforcement. Alternatively, if your intervention decreases the likelihood that the target behavior will happen again we call that punishment. We are reinforcing or punishing the behavior. So, lets' put these terms together. Negative reinforcement, is taking something away to increase the likelihood that a behavior will happen again; an example of this is the beeping your car makes when you don't buckle your seat belt. It is designed to be annoying and buckling up takes away (negative) the beeping resulting in you being more likely to buckle up in the future (reinforcement). Negative punishment is taking away something to decrease the likelihood of a behavior happening again. If you have your drivers licensed revoked (negative) after driving under the influence you will be less likely to do that again (punishment). So, the difference between negative reinforcement and negative punishment, is that the former increases behaviors (often by removing undesired stimuli) and the latter decreases behaviors (often by removing desired stimuli).

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