What is the difference between an agonist and an antagonist muscle?
The movement of the body always occurs with a pair of muscles, the agonist and antagonist. The agonist is the muscle that leads to movement via contraction. The antagonist is the muscle the opposes the movement the agonist is trying to perform and will try to return the body to the starting position.
What are the two types of reinforcement?
The two types of reinforcement are positive and negative reinforcement. Positive reinforcement involves rewarding a behavior by adding a positive stimulus or consequence that increases the likelihood of the behavior being performed again. Negative reinforcement involves removing a stimulus or consequence that also increases the likelihood of a behavior being performed again. For example, if a child does well on a test, they get a gold star on their paper. This is an example of positive reinforcement because the behavior was rewarded by a stimulus that will encourage the behavior to happen again. An example of negative reinforcement is a parent letting their child stop doing their homework because they were crying. The behavior of crying led to the removal of a stimulus, the homework, and encourages the child to try crying again next time to avoid homework.
What is the difference between genotype and phenotype?
A genotype is the actual genetic makeup of an organism, including both the dominant and recessive genes. A phenotype is the actual physical traits an organism expresses. For example, a person can have both the dominant gene for brown eyes and the recessive gene for blue eyes. This would be their genotype. The phenotype would be the gene expressed, the brown eye gene. To tell the difference, think of the 'ph' in phenotype standing for the physical traits you can observe in an organism.