Tutor profile: Charles H.
Subject: Library and Information Science
How can I narrow or expand search engine results?
One way to narrow search engine results is to use more specific search terms. (ie: Use "2004 United States Presidential Election Results" instead of "2004 Election.") Other tools for more effective search engine techniques is to use special operators. To find an exact match to a term or phrase, use quotation marks. This will narrow results. (ie: "Hegel's Truth" instead of: Hegel's Truth) To expand searches use of the word "or" is effective. (ie: Hegel or Kant will return results on Hegel and Kant) The minus symbol will omit results containing a term. (ie: Truth -Kant will return results of Truth that do not contain information on Kant.) * functions as a wildcard. Use this to include all results with the rest of the search. (ie: Philos* will return results for Philosophy, Philosopher, Philosophe, Philogist, Philosophic, and more.)
Subject: Political Science
What are independent, dependent, and confounding variables and how are they used in social research?
In social research (and other quantitative research) the dependent variable is the variable the researcher is interested in for the study. The independent variable is what is believed to affect the dependent variable. Confounding variables are those variables which exert unwanted influence on the dependent variable. For example: If a researcher wants to find out if economic prosperity has an impact on democratic elections, the elections would be the dependent variable. The economic conditions would be the independent variables. Confounding variables could be military engagement or foreign interference.
Subject: US History
What did Thaddeus Stevens propose be done with the former Confederate states after the Civil War and how did this differ from what was implemented?
Stevens, with other Radical Republicans, felt the southern states that lost the Civil War should be treated as conquered regions and subjected to rule by the government that had won the war. Lincoln had disagreed with Stevens and stated that he felt individuals had rebelled against the government instead of states. Stevens felt it was critical to protect the rights of freed slaves in the south and prevent the rise of the defeated governments involved in the Confederacy from returning to power and implementing a system that would result in de facto subjugation of freed slaves. Stevens proposed that the government confiscate the land of former slave owners and implement land reform to give the land to those who were formerly subjugated and those who remained loyal to the Union government. He also proposed implementing legislation to protect the voting rights of the slaves freed at the end of the war. Stevens worried that if precautions were not taken, southern states would send the rebels from the Civil War and send them to Congress, protecting their continued domination over these states. Although Stevens had worked on getting the the Thirteenth and Fourteenth Amendments passed, he felt they did not go far enough to protect those disenfranchised. President Johnson, a former slave owner himself, ascended to the Presidency after the assassination of Lincoln. Johnson implemented a "Presidential Reconstruction" that left much of the rebuilding of the states that had lost the war in the hands of state legislators. These states implemented various systems that disenfranchised Black voters and enacted a system of segregation. Much of the land owned by slave owners before and during the war was given back to the original owners.
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