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Tutor profile: Jackquero D.

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Jackquero D.
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Questions

Subject: Chemistry

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Question:

Assigning the oxidation number to each atom in a molecule is important especially if they are involved in a redox reaction. This will help us keep track of the electrons in the atoms that participate in the oxidation-reduction reaction. What are the rules used to assign the oxidation number of the atoms in a molecule?

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Jackquero D.
Answer:

In order to properly assign the oxidation number of an atom in a molecule, the following rules must be followed. 1. All elements in their free state (uncombined with other elements) have an oxidation number equal to zero. 2. In their compounds state, elements found in Group 1A has an oxidation number of +1; Group 2A has an oxidation number of +2. 3. Halogens are usually -1 when combined with a more electronegative element but +1 when combined with oxygen. 3. Hydrogen is usually +1 except in metal hydrides (if hydrogen is combined with metals) where it is -1. 4. Oxygen is usually -2 except with peroxide which is -1. 5. Fluorine is always -1. 6. All monoatomic ions have oxidation numbers equal to their charges. 7. The sum of the oxidation numbers of neutral compounds is equal to zero. The sum of the oxidation numbers of polyatomic ions is equal to their overall charge.

Subject: Biochemistry

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Question:

What is cellular respiration?

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Jackquero D.
Answer:

Cellular respiration is a series of metabolic processes that occur inside the cell. This process breaks down large molecules of glucose and releases energy from it in the form of adenosine triphosphate or ATP. It is a biochemical pathway that converts the sugar in the presence of oxygen into carbon dioxide and water. Cellular respiration consists of three stages namely glycolysis, Kreb's cycle (citric acid cycle) and electron transport chain (oxidative phosphorylation).

Subject: Biology

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Question:

What are the differences between mitosis and meiosis?

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Jackquero D.
Answer:

Mitosis and meiosis are both processes that involve the division of the cell. Mitosis occurs in somatic cells (body cells). This process plays an important role in the growth of organisms, to repair worn-out cells and tissues and for asexual reproduction. Mitosis produces two daughter cells that are genetically identical to the parent cell. Each daughter cell is diploid (contains 2 sets of chromosomes). Mitosis has only 1 cell division. On the other hand, meiosis occurs in the reproductive cells (sex cells) of the organisms. Unlike mitosis, meiosis has two successive cell divisions called meiosis 1 and meiosis 2. In meiosis 1, the parent cell divides producing two daughter cells. Crossing over occurs in this stage where the non-sister chromatids of the homologous chromosomes pair up with each other and exchange segments of the genetic material. This process caused genetic variation among the daughter cells and the parent cell. In meiosis 2, the two daughter cells divide producing four daughter cells which are unidentical to the parent cell and to each other. The resulting four daughter cells are haploid which contains half of the number of the complete set of chromosomes. Meiosis plays a significant role in making gametes (egg cell and sperm), the cells used for sexual reproduction and to assure variation in the genetic makeup for the next generation.

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