Write a text analysis of a poem by a Latin American author.
“Balada de los dos abuelos” es un poema de Nicolás Guillén, aparecido en 1934 en West Indies Ltd. Los dos abuelos representan las dos razas (blanca y negra). Guillén escribe sobre los contrastes, los conflictos, y finalmente, la unión de las razas en él mismo. El poema contiene seis estrofas, algunas con aspectos fijos, y otras no. Por ejemplo, las primeras estrofas tiene ocho versos, o líneas. Después sin embargo, la tercera estrofa contiene doce versos. Además, es interesante que las líneas del poema tengan cantidad de sílabas variadas pero siempre regresan a ochos sílabas. Demuestra una alteración entre forma fija y libre. También, el lenguaje del poema es muy espontáneo y repetitivo, como una canción. Está fijado en un ritmo y las frases repetidas sirven como un coro. En el poema, la espontaneidad es evidente cuando Guillén pasa de las descripciones de las culturas, a las de los lugares y a las de las historias de las razas. Cambia entre sujetos sin conexiones establecidas o obvias. El tema de las razas contrarias es unido pero las ideas y los sujetos que representen a los africanos y los europeos son variados y están usados muy abruptamente en el texto. Guillén utiliza muchos objetos para representar la historia de las dos razas. Por ejemplo, “[la] lanza con punta de hueso, [el] tambor de cuero y madera” representan la cultura de los africanos. Por otro lado, las cosas que representan los europeos son “[la] gorguera en el cuello ancho, [y] gris armadura blanco.” También, “[las] velas de amargo viento, galeón ardiendo en oro…” son un ejemplo de una historia compartida por las razas. Su uso de las cosas variadas ha creado los imágenes muy claro para los lectores. A pesar del conflicto y las diferencias, en el fin del poema, “los dos [abuelos] se abrazan” lo que sugiere una unificación de las razas con el autor Guillén en el medio. Personalmente, me conecto con este poema porque soy vietnamita y blanca. “Balada de los dos abuelos” habla sobre de la crisis de identidad y la importancia de aceptar ambos de sus identidades. El mensaje, que esté muy importante para las personas como yo, está enfatizado por la musicalidad del estilo de Guillén.
Describe the impact of the Treaty of Versailles after World War I.
In 1918, the Allied Powers, consisting of Great Britain, the United States of America, France, and Italy, held a peace conference to negotiate the terms of a new treaty to end World War I. However, the conference did not include a representative from Germany. The conference resulted in a punitive treaty that only sought benefits for the Allied Powers called the Treaty of Versailles. The Treaty of Versailles included articles that crippled the German economy, which caused the people to resent their political leaders and generated a sense of hopelessness in the German people. In the midst of economic chaos and political unrest, Adolf Hitler manipulated the animosity against the Weimar Republic into support for his political party, the National Socialist German Worker’s Party, better known as the Nazis. As the support for the Weimar Republic dwindled, Hitler and the Nazis gained power and in 1939, with the invasion of Poland, World War II began. Therefore, the Treaty of Versailles contributed to the outbreak of World War II because the economic consequences of Articles 45, 119, and 232 caused political unrest in Germany which led to the support for and the reign of the Nazis. The Weimar Republic, the government that replaced Germany’s constitutional monarchy after the abdication of monarch Wilhelm II, signed the treaty that Count Brockdorff-Rantzau called “the death sentence of millions of German men, women and children” due to the punitive measures that lie within it. This made the Weimar Republic responsible for the consequences of the Treaty of Versailles in the eyes of the German populace. For example, the Treaty of Versailles stripped Germany of its colonies, which the Germans relied on for raw materials. Raw materials are the basic materials that become a manufactured product. In the early 1900’s, Germany relied on its African colonies for raw materials such as agricultural products, gold, exotic fruits, and rubber tree extracts. Germany transformed these raw materials into finished products for exchange. Keynes explained in The Economic Consequences of Peace that: After this diminution of her products, after the economic depression resulting from the loss of her colonies… Germany will not be in a position to import from abroad an adequate quantity of raw material. An enormous part of German industry will, therefore, be condemned inevitably to destruction. Without the colonies, Germany could not adequately support its industry; they no longer possessed a way to obtain the amount of raw materials necessary to maintain an industrialized economy. This caused the economy to collapse which led to high rates of unemployment and hunger. Because the Weimar Republic signed the Treaty of Versailles, Germany lost the means to survive as an industrial powerhouse, and the German people lost their jobs. The Weimar Republic thus became the face of the Treaty of Versailles, the enemy of the German people. The inability to support an industrial economy also stemmed from the fact that the Treaty of Versailles allowed France to take control of the mines in the Saar Basin, which contained a large coal deposit. Additionally, in 1923 French soldiers occupied the Ruhr Valley, another area with a large coal deposit, because Germany could not pay reparations. French occupation of two major coal deposits limited the amount of coal resources left for the Germans to use. In 1913, Germany extracted an average of 114 million tons of coal from the Ruhr Valley alone, demonstrating the heavy dependence upon coal in an industrial economy. Coal served as the power source for steel mills, textile factories, and more importantly, the boilers in steam-powered trains and steamboats. Steam-powered trains and steamboats served as the primary methods for the transportation of goods, such as raw materials and food. Without coal, Germany could not import or export finished products, food and raw materials, which significantly weakened the German industry and caused millions of Germans to lose their jobs and to suffer from hunger due to their inability to afford or import food. Keynes noted in The Economic Consequence of Peace: For starvation, which brings to some lethargy and a helpless despair, drives other temperaments to the nervous instability of hysteria and to a mad despair. And these in their distress may overturn the remnants of organization, and submerge civilization itself in their attempts to satisfy desperately the overwhelming needs of the individual. In other words, the lack of food can cause some to become irrational and seek any way to satisfy their own needs. In their irrational state, individuals take into account only their own needs, not the needs of the community. In the eyes of the German people, the representatives of the Weimar Republic caused this wave of unemployment and hunger by signing the Treaty of Versailles. In an effort to satisfy their personal needs, instead of supporting the Republic, the German populace began supporting radical rightist groups such as the National Socialist German Workers’ Party, later known as the Nazis, due to the party’s promises of positive change. Despite taking most of Germany’s methods of sustaining an industrial economy and supporting the German population, the Treaty of Versailles also required the payment of reparations. The amount decided on at a later time totaled $33 billion. As the representatives of the Weimar Republic willingly printed more paper money to pay the reparations after World War I, inflationary pressures intensified and caused the German mark to become worthless. In 1914, one US dollar equaled 4.2 German marks. By November 1, 1923, that number reached 130 billion marks to the dollar. By the end of November 1923, the number rose to 4.2 trillion marks. The German population watched helplessly as their life savings became nothing. In fact, many people began burning the marks as a heat source instead of buying wood because it was cheaper to do so. Because the Weimar Republic signed the Treaty, the German people associated the disastrous economic effects of the treaty with the Weimar Republic. This along with the fact that the Weimar Republic could not effectively alleviate the economic problems caused by the Treaty of Versailles induced the people of Germany to despise both as one and the same. Unlike the Weimar Republic, Adolf Hitler and the Nazis gave the people a sense of security. The platform of the National Socialist German Worker’s Party addressed two critical problems that affected the German populace the most: unemployment and hunger. In his 1933 inaugural address, Hitler named seven items for his program to solve unemployment, most of which involved the dedication and willingness of the German people, and asked the German population to give him four years’ time. Indeed, under Hitler, unemployment dropped from 6 million in 1932 to 2.6 million in 1934 and to 500,000 in 1937. Hitler provided men with jobs in farming, industry, and the military by removing women from the working scene. This allowed many German men to obtain a sustainable income for food, which in turn pacified the hunger problem. Hitler and the Nazis kept their promise to the German people and provided positive results, which the Weimar Republic did not do. The Nazis eased the economic consequences of the Treaty of Versailles and satisfied the needs of the individual, thereby making them a more appealing party to the German people, despite their methods such as terrorism and murder. Because of the rising support for the Nazi platform under Hitler’s lead, the President of Germany appointed Hitler as the Chancellor of Germany in 1933. That same year the German Parliament passed the Enabling Act, which essentially allowed the Chancellor, in this case Hitler, to pass any law without involving the Parliament. This meant that Hitler could enact laws without resistance. Following the death of the president in 1934, Hitler passed a law that merged the powers of the President with the position of Chancellor. The powers of the president included the power to command the armed forces, which allowed Hitler to invade Poland in 1939, thus starting World War II. During the time of desperation and outrage, Adolf Hitler and the Nazis gained political support for their promises of positive change in unemployment rates and hunger caused by the Treaty of Versailles. Despite the strong anti-Semitic theme and dictatorial methods of the Nazi regime, the German people endorsed Hitler’s actions due to the incapability of the Weimar Republic to effectively manage the economic consequences of the Treaty of Versailles. The Treaty of Versailles, therefore, led to World War II by causing downfalls in the German economy which led to animosity towards the Weimar Republic, and support for and empowerment of Hitler and the Nazis. With the Enabling Act and death of the German President in 1934, Hitler gained the powers that allowed him to invade Poland and cause the outbreak of World War II.
Create a lesson plan.
Lesson Plan: Artistic Analysis of the Renaissance TITLE: Learning Artistic Analysis TEKS STANDARDS ADDRESSED: 10th grade, AP World History • TEKS: 5a-b, 26a-c, 29b OBJECTIVES: The learner will analyze and interpret Renaissance art for historical context. ASSESSMENT: An Art Gallery Chart will be used to assess the students’ understanding of visual analysis and Renaissance art. The chart will have three columns: describe, define, and purpose. The three sections will be defined in a short paragraph on the top of the paper. Examples and non-examples will be provided as well. RATIONALE: This lesson will allow students to practice visual analysis of perspective, purpose, and historical context for DBQ section of the AP Exam. It will give the students a vital tool for future history classes. CONTENT SUMMARY: The topic is Renaissance art. The Renaissance era is considered the bridge between the Medieval and modern eras. Starting in Italy with the rise of the Medici’s, the Renaissance blossomed into two separate artistic movements that heavily reflected the values of the geographic areas encompassed in it. Through Renaissance art, one can observe the social, cultural, political realms of the late medieval era. During the Renaissance, the revival of classical art led to the new era of thought known as humanism. Here too, one can observe the impact of humanistic thought on society and intellectuals of the late medieval and early modern era. Therefore, artistic analysis of Renaissance art provides will provide exceptionally unique insight to the life in this significant time period. While this lesson provides students with the understanding of Renaissance art, it will also give them analytical methods for visual sources. MATERIALS: Materials include: 13 pieces of Renaissance art (sculptures, paintings, portraits, literature) from differing years, artists, and geographic regions (marked A - M) ; a chart with the list of art works organized by their letter mark - there will be one chart per student; students will need a writing utensil; Teacher will need a projector / smartboard for presenting and timing. LESSON SEQUENCE: Step 1: Guided Practice a. As the students come in, the teacher will hand them the chart, ask students to partner up and sit side by side in a group. b. The teacher will explain the activity for the day: an art gallery. The teacher will present the chart provided for each student and explain each column of the chart: description, define, and purpose. The teacher will explain the expectation for each column: individual description of an art piece, defining with a partner the symbols displayed in the art, and determining the significance of the art piece with the partner. c. The teacher will then direct students’ attention to the Smartboard and present Art M and explain to the students that the letter corresponds to a specific section on the chart. The teacher will then allow the students to individually and silently observe the photo and jot down their own descriptions. Then, the teacher will ask for examples of descriptions from the students, reinforcing examples that the teacher would like students to have in their individual practice. d. After this, the teacher will ask the students to define some potential symbols in Art M. The teacher may choose to take examples at this time. e. Finally, the teacher will tell students to determine the purpose of Art M and take volunteered responses with their specific reasoning. The teacher will carefully detail why some answers may be true but less correct than others. Step 2 - 4: Individual Practice, Rotation, and Repeat a. After explaining and demonstrating the activity, it is time for students to practice on their own. b. As the students work in pairs, the teacher may walk around to some groups and observe their work. If the teacher notices anything that may hinder the students’ understandings, he/she may briefly interrupt the class and correct this specific activity. After 5 minutes, students will rotate to the next art piece and repeat this process. c. After the first round of practice, the teacher should begin to decrease the amount of time for students to analyze an artwork. The final goal is 3 minutes, for at least the final 3 rotations. d. Students may not get to all of the art pieces but that is okay. The point is that they will be able to practice visual analysis multiple times. Step 5: Review a. When there is only 5-6 minutes left of class, stop the students and select a few more difficult art pieces (based on your observations of students) and use volunteered responses to review them. Do not give students the answers, allow them to think and come up with their own. This will also allow students who did not get to these specific pieces to still analyze them. b. At the end of class, the teacher may choose to take up the charts or allow students to keep them. The point of this lesson is to get students to understand and practice visual analysis for perspective and historical context, whether or not it is for a grade is entirely up to the teacher.